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Periaqueductal gray and emotions: the complexity of the problem and the light at the end of the tunnel, the magnetic resonance imaging


The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is less referred in relationship with emotions than other parts of the brain (e.g. cortex, thalamus, amygdala), most probably because of the difficulty to reach and manipulate this small and deeply lying structure. After defining how to evaluate emotions, we have reviewed the literature and summarized data of the PAG contribution to the feeling of emotions focusing on the behavioral and neurochemical considerations. In humans, emotions can be characterized by three main domains: the physiological changes, the communicative expressions, and the subjective experiences. In animals, the physiological changes can mainly be studied. Indeed, early studies have considered the PAG as an important center of the emotions-related autonomic and motoric processes. However, in vivo imaging have changed our view by highlighting the PAG as a significant player in emotions-related cognitive processes. The PAG lies on the crossroad of networks important in the regulation of emotions and therefore it should not be neglected. In vivo imaging represents a good tool for studying this structure in living organism and may reveal new information about its role beyond its importance in the neurovegetative regulation.

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The effect of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3–36), a selective Y2 receptor agonist on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in albino rats


Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the PYY3–36, as a potential therapy for the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), induced by high fat diet (HFD) and an intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) in albino rats.

Methods. Forty adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into: 1) control group (C, in which the rats were fed with a standard diet and received vehicle; 2) diabetic group (D, in which T2DM was induced by feeding the rats with HFD for four weeks followed by a single i.p. injection of 35 mg/kg STZ, this group was also allowed to have HFD till the end of the study; and 3) D+PYY3–36 group (in which the diabetic rats were treated with 50 µg/kg i.p. PYY3–36 twice a day for one week). Food intake, water intake, body weight (b.w.), visceral fat weight (VFW), liver glycogen content, serum levels of glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were measured. Homeostatic-model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was estimated. The gene expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and visceral nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were assessed by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results. The PYY3–36 administration to the diabetic group of rats significantly increased the serum insulin levels and liver glycogen content, decreased the body weight, VFW, food intake, water intake, serum levels of the glucose, IL-6, and HOMA-IR. It also decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic NPY and the visceral fat NF-κB.

Conclusion. With respect to the fact of improved insulin release and enhanced insulin sensitivity (an effect that may be mediated via suppressing accumulation of visceral fat and inflammatory markers), in the rats treated with PYY3–36, the PYY3–36 might be considered for the future as a promising therapeutic tool in T2DM.

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The prepulse inhibition deficit appearance is largely independent on the circadian cycle, body weight, and the gender of vasopressin deficient Brattleboro rat


Objective. A disturbance of sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) is one of the best tests of the schizophrenia-like behavior. Vasopressin was implicated in the development of schizophrenia; therefore, the naturally occurring vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat has been suggested to be a reliable non-pharmacological animal model. However, previous studies focusing on PPI deficit did not use proper control and despite clear gender differences in the development of the disorder, the effect of gender has been mostly neglected.

Methods. First, we compared the „noise” and „tone” type prepulse at 73-77-81 dB intensity during the light or dark phase using small (~150 g) or big (~500 g) Wistar rats. The test parameters were validated by a pharmacological schizophrenia model (30 mg/kg ketamine i.p.). Than male, female, and lactating vasopressin-deficient animals were compared with +/+ ones.

Results. We established that the prepulse “noise” type is not optimal for PPI testing. The cycle of the day as well as the body weight had no effect on PPI. Even if we compared vasopressin-deficient animals with their closely related +/+ controls, the PPI deficiency was visible with more pronounced effect at 77 dB prepulse intensity similarly to pharmacological schizophrenia model. Despite our expectation, the gender as well as lactation had no effect on the vasopressin-deficiency induced PPI deficit.

Conclusions. The present data confirmed and extended our previous studies that vasopressin-deficient rat is a good model of schizophrenia. It seems that female as well as lactating Brattleboro rats are useful tools for testing putative novel antipsychotics in line with special attention required for schizophrenic women.

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Homeobox B4 gene expression is upregulated by ghrelin through PI3-kinase signaling pathway in rat’s bone marrow stromal cells


Objective. Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, has diverse physiological roles. Phosphatidylino-sitol-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are involved in some of the recognized actions of ghrelin. It has been shown that ghrelin upregulates HOXB4 gene expression but the real mechanism of this effect is not clear.

Methods. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in DMEM. BMSCs were treated with ghrelin (100 μM) for 48 h. Real-time PCR for HOXB4 was performed from Control (untreated BMSCs), BG (BMSCs treated with 100 µM ghrelin), PD (BMSCs treated with 10 µM PD98059, a potent inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase, and 100 µM ghrelin), LY (BM-SCs treated with 10 µM LY294002, a strong inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and 100 µM ghrelin) and SY (BMSCs treated with 10 µM LY294002 plus 10 µM PD98059, and 100 µM ghrelin) groups. Relative gene expression changes were determined using Relative expression software tool 9 (REST 9).

Results. HOXB4 gene has been overexpressed in ghrelin-treated BMSCs (p<0.05). PI3K inhi-bition by LY294002 significantly downregulated the ghrelin-induced overexpression of HOXB4 (p<0.05).

Conclusion. We can conclude that ghrelin, through PI3K/Akt pathway, may improve BMSC transplantation potency by reducing its apoptosis. Moreover, upregulating HOXB4 in BMSC and its possible differentiation to HSCs might in the future open the doors to new treatment for hematologic disorders. Therefore, activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, instead of using a non-specific inducer, could be the principal point to increase the efficiency of BMSC-based cell therapies in the future.

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Comparison of clinical and biochemical variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and their first-degree relatives with metabolic syndrome in Benin City, Nigeria: A cross sectional case controlled study

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Lack of association between TCF7L2 gene variants and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Brazilian sample of patients with the risk for cardiovascular disease

variants in the TCF7L2 gene increase risk of type 2 diabetes. J Clin Invest 117, 2155–2163, 2007. MacDonald BT, Tamai K, He X. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases. Dev Cell 17, 9–26, 2009. Marquezine G, Pereira A, Sousa A, Mill J, Hueb W, Krieger J. TCF7L2 variant genotypes and type 2 diabetes risk in Brazil: significant association, but not a significant tool for risk stratification in the general population. BMC Med Genet 9, 106, 2008. Muendlein A, Saely CH, Geller-Rhomberg S, Sonderegger G, Rein P, Winder T, Beer S

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Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution

mortality. Int J Epidemiol 41, 484-494, 2012. Chen CH, Chen YY, Chuang CL, Chiang LM, Chiao SM, Hsieh KC. Th e study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals. Nutr J, 13-46, 2014. Chew WF, Masyita M, Leong PP, Boo NY, Zin T, Choo KB, Yap SF. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. Singapore Medic J 55, 84-91, 2014. Desai GS, Mathews ST. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for infl ammation and insulin-resistance. World J

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Ulmus minor bark hydro-alcoholic extract ameliorates histological parameters and testosterone level in an experimental model of PCOS rats

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A short review of primary aldosteronism in a question and answer fashion

German Conn’s Registry-Else Kroner-Fresenius-Hyperaldosteronism Registry. Assay characteristics influence the aldosterone to renin ratio as a screening tool for primary aldosteronism: results of the German Conn’s registry. Horm Metab Res 45, 526-531, 2013. Fleming T, ed. 2005 Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference. Montvale NJ: Thomson PDR, 2005. Funder JW, Carey RM, Fardella C, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Mantero F, Stowasser M, Young WF Jr, Montori VM; Endocrine Society. Case detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with primary

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Insulin resistance in obese adolescents affects the expression of genes associated with immune response

expression is reduced in sepsis and correlates with impaired TNFα response: A diagnostic tool for immunosuppression? PLoS One 12, e0182427, 2017. Wu B, Yang H, Ying S, Lu H, Wang W, Lv J, Xiong H, Hu W. High HLA-F expression is a poor prognosis factor in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) 2018, 7691704, 2018. Wu C, Xu G, Tsai SA, Freed WJ, Lee CT. Transcriptional profiles of type 2 diabetes in human skeletal muscle reveal insulin resistance, metabolic defects, apoptosis, and molecular signatures of immune activation in response to

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