A. Edelmann-Nusser, A. Raschke, A. Bentz, S. Montenbruck, J. Edelmann-Nusser and M. Lames
Three inertial measurement unit (IMU) based tennis sensor systems from BABOLAT (PURE DRIVE PLAY, POP) and HEAD (Tennis Sensor) and a camera-based system (PlaySight) were tested with respect to the question whether the information about the number of strokes by swing type and spin type in training exercises and/or matches and the average as well as the maximum speed of the service per session are reliable. Subsequently, the question whether the mechanical properties of the BABOLAT PURE DRIVE PLAY racket are the same as the mechanical properties of the BABOLAT PURE DRIVE racket without IMU was addressed.
For swing types in standard exercises the results are acceptable for forehand groundstrokes, backhand groundstrokes and services but not for volleys. In a match environment we find inacceptably high errors (>10%) for the number of strokes for forehand and completely inacceptable levels for volley. The wrist-based IMU of BABOLAT POP has not reached an acceptable accuracy at all. For spin types the results are acceptable. The large variances in service speed assessment between devices make it doubtful whether any of them may be used for the control of training processes aiming at increasing the average service speed The mechanical properties of the BABOLAT rackets with and without IMU are quite the same.
Sports coaches today have access to a growing amount of information that describes the performance of their players. Methods such as data mining have become increasingly useful tools to deal with the analytical demands of these high volumes of data. In this paper, we present a sports data mining approach using a combination of sequential association rule mining and clustering to extract useful information from a database of more than 400 high level beach volleyball games gathered at FIVB events in the years from 2013 to 2016 for both men and women. We regard each rally as a sequence of transactions including the tactical behaviours of the players. Use cases of our approach are shown by its application on the aggregated data for both genders and by analyzing the sequential patterns of a single player. Results indicate that sequential rule mining in conjunction with clustering can be a useful tool to reveal interesting patterns in beach volleyball performance data.
O. Ueberschär, D. Fleckenstein, F. Warschun, N. Walter, J. C. Wüstenfeld, B. Wolfarth and M. W. Hoppe
Hypogravity treadmills have become a popular training tool in distance running and triathlon. Counter-intuitively, tibial acceleration load is not attenuated by hypogravity unloading during running, while, equally surprisingly, leaps become flatter instead of higher. To explain these effects from a biomechanical perspective, Polet, Schroeder, and Bertram (2017) recently developed an energetic model for hypogravity running and validated it with recreational athletes at a constant jogging speed. The present study was conducted to refine that model for competitive athletes at relevant running speeds of 12–22 km h−1 and gravity levels of 100 %, 80 % and 60 %. Based on new experimental data on 15 well-trained runners in treadmill tests until volitional exhaustion, the enhanced semi-empirical model well describes energy expenditure and the observed biomechanical effects of hypogravity running. Remarkably, anaerobic contributions led to an increase in energy cost per meter for speeds above 16–18 km h−1 (p < 0.001), irrespective of hypogravity unloading. Moreover, some converging trends were observed that might reflect general adaptations in running motor control for optimization of efficiency. In essence, the outcome of this research might help sports scientists and practitioners to design running programs for specific training stimuli, e.g. conditioning of anaerobic energy metabolism.
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Dariusz Boguszewski, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Katarzyna Boguszewska, Dominika Wrzosek, Natalia Mrozek, Marta Waloch and Dariusz Białoszewski
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Mirosław Mikicin, Sylwia Nowacka-Dobosz, Anna Mróz, Anna Kuk and Adriana Zagórska-Pachucka
Study aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between attention and physical endurance (running) and anthropometric parameters of athletes.
Material and methods: The study examined 61 students aged 19 to 25 years, divided into two groups: athletes (33 participants) and non-athletes (28 participants). We employed anthropometric measurements and the Vienna System Test, including tools to measure focused attention, such as LVT (visual orientation performance test) and DAUF (test for examination of sustained attention) and the Cooper test to measure endurance.
Results: Analysis of the results demonstrated a relationship between attention and physical endurance with median time from LVT (r = –0.552). A relationship was also found between the Cooper test results and the mean time to incorrect answer (r = –0.900).
Conclusions: The analysis demonstrated a relationship between attention, physical endurance and anthropometric parameters of athletes.
Study aim: To assess the effects of fatigue on agility and responsiveness in boxing.
Material and methods: Agroup of 20 amateur boxers aged 14–45 years participated in the study. Ditrich’s test and acomputer test, both measuring the speed of reaction to avisual stimulus, as well as agility run and 4 × 10 m shuttle run with carrying blocks, both measuring agility, were performed. Running agility and reaction speed were measured at 3levels of fatigue expressed by the heart rates. The capacity to maintain the highest possible level of measured variables was assessed by applying the performance index (PI) (mean value of three or four (in the case of Ditrich’s test) repetitions to the maximum one). Student’s t-test for dependent data and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used in data analysis, the level p ≤ 0.05 being considered significant.
Results: Both running agility and responsiveness markedly decreased with mounting fatigue, e.g. running speed from 1.73 ± 0.12 m/s to 1.55 ± 0.11 m/s.
Conclusion: Developing anaerobic endurance would markedly improve agility skills and speed of reaction to external stimuli. Measuring the performance index (PI) from short, maximal, repeated exertions spaced with constant intermissions may be a valuable tool in directing training activities towards development of selected elements of boxers’ physical fitness.
Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.
Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.
Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.
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