Introduction: The aim of the present paper was to point out to the actual overview of tools used to measure spirituality in child age on the basis of an analysis of studies addressing the given issue included in the full-text database EBSCOa PsycINFO.
Purpose: The analysed studies were selected according to the following criteria: a) age range of respondents 6-11 years, that means, younger school age (studies where age of respondents included upper limit of stated age range were also accepted), b) the study included the use of a specific instrument for measuring spirituality (or selected scales), c) the study included the assessment of the psychometric properties of the instruments, d) the study was not qualitative, that means, spirituality was not measured through interviews or open questions.
Methods: Altogether, 15 research studies were analysed on the basis of which 8 instruments used for measuring spirituality in children were identified of which 3 tools (FGLL, Fisher, 2004; YSS, Sifers et al. 2012; SSSC, Stoyles et al. 2012) especially developed for use in child age (6-11 years) and 5 tools (SWBQ, Gomez & Fisher, 2003; RCOPE, Pargament et al. 2000; BMMRS, Fetzer Institute, 1999; SWBS, Ellison, 1983; FACIT-SP-12, Peterman et al. 2002) originally intended for work with the older population and used in the age group 11 years and over. The tools were subsequently described in terms of the theoretical structure, in terms of assessing the psychometric properties and assessing the quality of the tools and in terms of benefits or disadvantages when used with a child’s respondent. The theoretical bases of the instruments pointed out to the problem of the inconsistent and ambiguous definition of the spirituality construct, which is reflected in the different understanding of spirituality and its dimensions.
Conclusion: The psychometric indicators of particular instruments were evaluated and scored on the basis of selected criteria. According to the assessment, the absence of retest reliability verification, verification of some types of validity and the size of the set of validation studies was found out. From the perspective of the appropriateness of the use of tools, some tools seem to be problematic in particular to understand the particular items and omitting factors (for example family, peers) playing an important role in the spirituality of children.
Dorota Kuncewicz, Ewa Sokołowska and Jolanta Sobkowicz
The theory of literature provides tools for interpreting language communication. A psychologist, when interpreting a communication - which is often a latent one - has no other alternative but to employ these tools (with the exception of non-verbal communication). Often, however, this stage of work is defined as “intuitive”, which significantly limits the repeatability of the procedure and thus gives rise to reservations as to its scientific value. Review of certain literary theory devices, along with their possible applications, allows for naming these tools, selecting, and ordering the consecutive stages of communication analysis. In our opinion, such reviewing opens up the possibility for filling this gap in qualitative research analysis with specific tools and specific ways of using these tools in place of intuitiveness.
Dominika Stryjewsja, Krzysztof Kwoka, Paulina Szymanowska and Bożena Janda-Dębek
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Barbara Kożusznik, Anita Pollak, Dominik Adamek and Damian Grabowski
Our article presents work on the development and validation of Influence Regulation and Deinfluentization Scale (DEI-beh). Reviewing concepts regarding its influence constitutes an introduction to the original deinfluentization concept coined by Barbara Kożusznik. The author’s theory has provided the basis for creating a diagnostic tool. The elaborated DEI-beh method consists in evaluating conditions which determine managerial effectiveness and shape reciprocal influences among team members. Our article describes this tool’s creation and its validation procedure. Positive relationships between DEI-beh’s individual dimensions and temperament characteristics, defined in Pavlov’s concept (1952), and selected personality traits, proposed in the Five-Factor Model Personality by Costa and McCrae (1992), confirm the tool’s external validity.
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The Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire was designed to measure sexual satisfaction. It consists of 10 items. The results of several studies have supported the Questionnaire as psychometrically sound and valid. It may be a valuable tool for measuring one’s attitude (both cognitively and emotionally) to their own sexual activity.
There have been increasing calls in environmental psychology for the standardized instruments measuring people’s subjective perception of urban environment quality. One such tool is a commonly accepted and oft-cited questionnaire for measuring perceived urban environmental quality, the Perceived Residential Environment Quality & Neighborhood Attachment (PREQ & NA) Indicators, developed by a team of Italian researchers: Ferdinando Fornara, Marino Bonaiuto, and Mirilia Bonnes. This article presents the results of the PREQ & NA’s adaptation study that we conducted in Poland. The adaptation project was divided into several qualitative and quantitative stages spanning April 2013 to December 2014. A total of 200 participants were examined, 99 women and 101 men aged between 18 and 89. We cooperated with six English and Italian translators. The results of our study demonstrated a factorial validity of the tool’s Polish language version relative to both the Italian original and its recent Iranian adaptation, which we used for comparisons with the data obtained in a non-European cultural area. In addition to describing the entire adaptation procedure and presenting its results, we propose that a number of minor but necessary modifications be made in the Polish version, as indicated by our analyses. Following a positive verification and discussion of the Polish adaptation’s convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity, we propose the final Polish version of the adapted questionnaire.
My paper describes a Polish adaptation of the family assessment tool called FACES IV. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of the model to the data with a sample of 499 Polish individuals from 150 families. The reliability measures of the two Balanced scales are similar to those of the American scales. However, the four Unbalanced scales have lower reliability. Reliability measures of Family Satisfaction and Family Communication are even higher than the American ones. A cluster analysis clearly depicted the extreme profiles of the Balanced and Unbalanced scales, with the remaining four profiles also present. Norms were developed for the various scales. Psychometric verification of this instrument showed that FACES IV-SOR is useful for research and clinical work with Polish families.
The content of this scientific study is based on the qualitative analysis of selected answers of parents, in the framework of semi-structured interview. The qualitative research is apart of bigger research work P-155/A, dealing with mental health of children in family and school settings. The main goal is to learn and analyse the empirical experience and views of participants, related to joint custody and shared care. The research sample consisted of randomly selected 9 participants who visited Výskumný ústav detskej psychológie apatopsychológie on behalf of some problems regarding custody after divorce/separation. In this contribution the parents´ attitudes towards mutual communication of former partners/parents, functioning of joint custody and shared care and some views related to some limits in this form of shared parenting have been analysed. Some valuable remarks with regard to the need of multi-professional team work, addressed to parents within the process of their divorce/separation proved to be very useful. Parents proposed they would extremely welcome some more help from mental health professionals and their crises intervention actions.
On behalf of discussion we notice that the juridical institute of joint custody and shared care is a very important tool, however, some legislative changes of this law should be still done. Concluding the study, we state that in spite of some methodological problems – like a limited number of research participants, we believe that the results can serve as a basis for the next deeper research, bringing more proposals for improvement in this field.