Introduction: The aim of the present paper was to point out to the actual overview of tools used to measure spirituality in child age on the basis of an analysis of studies addressing the given issue included in the full-text database EBSCOa PsycINFO.
Purpose: The analysed studies were selected according to the following criteria: a) age range of respondents 6-11 years, that means, younger school age (studies where age of respondents included upper limit of stated age range were also accepted), b) the study included the use of a specific instrument for measuring spirituality (or selected scales), c) the study included the assessment of the psychometric properties of the instruments, d) the study was not qualitative, that means, spirituality was not measured through interviews or open questions.
Methods: Altogether, 15 research studies were analysed on the basis of which 8 instruments used for measuring spirituality in children were identified of which 3 tools (FGLL, Fisher, 2004; YSS, Sifers et al. 2012; SSSC, Stoyles et al. 2012) especially developed for use in child age (6-11 years) and 5 tools (SWBQ, Gomez & Fisher, 2003; RCOPE, Pargament et al. 2000; BMMRS, Fetzer Institute, 1999; SWBS, Ellison, 1983; FACIT-SP-12, Peterman et al. 2002) originally intended for work with the older population and used in the age group 11 years and over. The tools were subsequently described in terms of the theoretical structure, in terms of assessing the psychometric properties and assessing the quality of the tools and in terms of benefits or disadvantages when used with a child’s respondent. The theoretical bases of the instruments pointed out to the problem of the inconsistent and ambiguous definition of the spirituality construct, which is reflected in the different understanding of spirituality and its dimensions.
Conclusion: The psychometric indicators of particular instruments were evaluated and scored on the basis of selected criteria. According to the assessment, the absence of retest reliability verification, verification of some types of validity and the size of the set of validation studies was found out. From the perspective of the appropriateness of the use of tools, some tools seem to be problematic in particular to understand the particular items and omitting factors (for example family, peers) playing an important role in the spirituality of children.
Dorota Kuncewicz, Ewa Sokołowska and Jolanta Sobkowicz
The theory of literature provides tools for interpreting language communication. A psychologist, when interpreting a communication - which is often a latent one - has no other alternative but to employ these tools (with the exception of non-verbal communication). Often, however, this stage of work is defined as “intuitive”, which significantly limits the repeatability of the procedure and thus gives rise to reservations as to its scientific value. Review of certain literary theory devices, along with their possible applications, allows for naming these tools, selecting, and ordering the consecutive stages of communication analysis. In our opinion, such reviewing opens up the possibility for filling this gap in qualitative research analysis with specific tools and specific ways of using these tools in place of intuitiveness.
Asaduzzaman Khan, Riaz Uddin, Naznin Alam, Shuhana Sultana, Mahbub-Ul Alam and Rushdia Ahmed
health problems such as depressive- and anxiety-disorders peaks during the age of 10–29 years ( Whiteford et al., 2013 ). Given the early onset, it is crucial to start assessing and monitoring mental health problems of individuals when they are young.
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale is a screening tool to assess the level of distress associated with non-specific psychological symptoms at the population level ( Kessler et al., 2002 ). Two versions of the scale – K6, a 6-item scale embedded in a 10-item scale (K10) – were developed from a pool of 612 items
Of the 9 controlled clinical trials included in our review, 7 were randomized controlled clinical trials and 2 were non-randomized controlled trials. The 2 non-randomized controlled trials were assumed to have a relatively high risk of bias. The risk of bias for the 7 randomized controlled trials was assessed with the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias (Julian P T Higgins et al., 2011 ). The results are presented in figures 2 and 3.Studies using mixed guarana interventions were thought to have a relatively high risk of bias, even if the trial was
Schroeder, C. E., & Lakatos, P. (2009). Low-frequency neuronal oscillations as instruments of sensory selection. Trends in Neurosciences , 32 (1), 9-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2008.09.012
Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2002). E-Prime user's guide . Pittsburgh: Psychology Software Tools Inc.
Steinborn, M. B., Langner, R., & Huestegge, L. (2017). Mobilizing cognition for speeded action: try-harder instructions promote motivated readiness in the constant-foreperiod paradigm. Psychological Research