The article is trying to highlight the major skills of a present-day translator, without which failure is assured. Although we start with general (classical) requirements, particular ones will be discussed, such as the gradual shift from PRAT (paper-and-rubber-assisted translation) to CAT (computer-assisted translation). We argue that professional translators in the 21st century must make use of personal computers and specific software designed to support translation: translation memories (TM), term bases (TB) and translation environments (TE), which already have built-in machine translation (MT) possibility as well. This shift also entails that translators have to deal with further impediments as well: the so-called "text"-to-be-translated has changed to "whatever"-to-be-translated. We argue that would-be translators are hardly ever prepared for this new type of multimedia challenge (e.g. surtitles), thus leaving room for technical experts to discover their skills in translating multimedia. It is our belief that managing translations is directly linked with managing translators, and there are more traps for translators in the 21st century than a layman would think. Consequently, we would like to offer some tips how to build and acquire translation databases in order to catch up with the 21st century rush hour in the field of translation.
Pop. Anisoara-Dredetianu. Mirela. 2013. Assessment of speaking in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Including a voice tool component. Studia Universitatis Petru Maior. Series Philologia. 15: 105-111.
Pop. Anisoara-Fenton. James. 2014. Offering individualized feedback in English for Medical Purposes through asynchronous writing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Virtual Learning (ICVL). Bucharest: Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti, 495-501.
Mitra. Sugata. 2011. Minimally invasive education - Hole in the Wall Project
.–Trost, H. 2013. Corpus development for machine translation between standard and dialectal varieties . Proceedings of the Adaptation of Language Resources and Tools for Closely Related Languages and Language Variants. Bulgaria, 7–14.
Kovács, M. 2015. Les aspects de traduction et de transmission de messages des phrasèmes universels dans le contexte de l’union européenne. Erreichbar: http://doktori.btk.elte.hu/lingv/kovacsmarietta/thesis.pdf
Lemnitzer, L.–Zinsmeister, H. 2006. Korpuslinguistik. Eine Einführung. Tübingen: Narr.
Lengyel, I. 2013. The
The present paper approaches the theme of “understanding strangers” through discussing some of the methodological issues in interlanguage pragmatics (ILP), with special reference to Hungarian-English Interlanguage (IL) requests. Written discourse completion tasks (WDCT) were used to collect data from 20 English major university students. The CCSARP Project’s 9-scale request strategies table proposed by Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper (1989) was incorporated into the research, the proposed categories were extended by labels relating to mixed strategies and responses where no answers were provided. The structure of the paper is as follows: after a brief overview of the literature in the field of ILP with a special focus on WDCT, the validity of the methodology is highlighted through the discussion of issues relating to labelling/coding categories as well as interannotator (dis)agreements. By analysing and comparing utterances on the basis of our annotation output and validating the results with the aid of ReCal, we have confirmed that WDCT is a reliable and valid tool for testing ILP competence in speech acts performance.
Verwendbarkeit von Textkorpora für das Fachübersetzen und für die Übersetzungswissenschaft
The question is very often discussed whether translators and translation scientists still need text corpora in translating didactic. In the last few decades text corpora enabled the use of new tools in the field of technical translation and translation research, such as the expansion of search criteria for text corpora on the Internet. The ever-recurring question of whether translators and translation scientists still need text corpora is asked at the same time.
At this point the question is not whether text corpora are useful to the search for words and/or sentences in the context, for the determination of the word order, for the selection of synonyms or collocations, as well as for the query of technical terms from parallel texts. The question can rather be formulated in another way, namely, whether translators and translation scientists should give up using text corpora when almost all information is accessible on the Internet where various search engines (e.g.: bing.com, mamma.com, google. com, yahoo.com) and a WebCorp initiative (webcorp.org.uk) increases the number of hits.
The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.
“Representation” is a relevant concept in many scientific disciplines, from linguistics to social psychology, but in sociotherapy, a branch of sociology dedicated to the intervention on individuals in situations of addiction or hardship of social origin, it becomes absolutely central. There are different approaches to sociotherapy, from the original one of Rudolf Steiner (1924), to those of Marshal Edelson (1970) and John Stuart Whiteley (1986), but it is the more recent one of Leonardo Benvenuti (2002) to fully integrate the concepts of “culture,” “discourse” and “representation.” This author, underlining the limited range of psychoanalysis, focuses his idea of therapy both on “culture,” interpreted as identification of the peculiar form of psychological organization of the patient as precondition to any intervention, and on “discourse” as method of interaction based on a dialogue supported by the phenomenological tool of “empathy.” The whole dialogue between the therapist and the patient is aimed to reach a complete knowledge of the system of “representations” of the latter. Benvenuti defines a “representation” as the combination of a cognitive element, the “image,” and an affective element, the “affective investment.” He looks for the roots of hardship or addiction in one or more “representations” of the patient, and this is the reason why they always must be unveiled and investigated. Only the successful intervention of the therapist on these representations and their correction in a desirable way may ensure the patient the acquisition of the needed level of autonomy and therefore the success of therapy.
The analysis of English as a lingua franca (ELF) has received considerable attention over the years. There has been a lot of research done both on the morpho-syntactic properties of ELF interactions and the communication strategies used by ELF speakers in order to facilitate communication and avoid misunderstandings. Given the fairly large number of findings, the question arises whether ELF should be introduced in the curriculum or replace EFL (English as a Foreign Language). I believe that although ELF data are significant and can benefit teaching English as a foreign language, they cannot replace EFL, especially because English as a lingua franca is primarily a communication tool and not a language variant. Also, while there have been other models suggested as alternatives to teaching a standard version of English, none of these models seem practical enough or have proven applicable in the classroom.
After giving an overview of the research done on English as a lingua franca, with a special emphasis on the notion of lingua franca core, the study reflects on the repercussions of ELF findings on teaching English as a foreign language.
Asmuni, A. 2015. Effect of use of media social networking Edmodo against student’s participation in class discussion on teaching materials which are theoretical and practical. Conference: Seminar Nasional Hasil Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran , Jawa Timur, Indonesia, vol. 1 No 1. Tahun. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17069.69602.
Patel, B. H.–Thakkar A.–Shah P. 2017. Edmodo: ICT based collaborative learning tool in promoting professional learning platforms . Accessed via Research Gate at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317954157