, coinciding with Poland’s accession to the European Union (EU). This does not mean, however, that Poland’s interest in revitalization policies was mainly cynical and related to structural funds: the word ‘revitalization’ was harnessed as a strategic tool to respond to a real need. By the time of EU accession, Polish urban experts and grassroots urban activist had come to acknowledge that the laissez faire approach to urban development which characterized the first 15 years of Poland’s transition to capitalism had led to feelings of spatial alienation and an overall urban
countries like Venezuela, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Colombia, it exceeds 90% ( Czerny 2014 : 18-19). Living conditions, quality of life and the sustainability of development are real challenges in most of these cities. Meanwhile modern technologies and communication tools that have revolutionised many industries, social patterns or media so pushing the world into an ‘era of information’ can be also applied to help cities solve their problems and achieve goals.
The authors of the McKinsey Global Institute report ‘Smart Cities: Digital solutions for a more liveable
talking about it, recognizing its significance and impact on the urban landscape of Poznań.
One of the main systematic research tools of urban anthropology, as well as human geography and urbanism, is ethnography, since it promises a holistic approach towards the understanding of social, spatial, and cultural context. Particularly suitable for the analysis of spatial practices, ethnography offers a collection of various qualitative research tools and procedures such as fieldnotes, in-depth interviews, mapping, and participant-observations. The multi
process of learning that involves power and personalities. Tracing pathways of policy learning can however be difficult to study since the exchanges rarely lead directly to implementation. Previous studies have traced the movement of knowledge through various ‘coordination tools’ ( McFarlane 2011b : 364), which include conferences, journals, multimedia, reports, and study tours; and others have followed the transnational advocacy groups and learning forums that support global circulation ( Theodore & Peck 2011 ). Scholars therefore reason that learning materializes
Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
Grundlagen für den Fußverkehr Eidgenössisches Departement für Umwelt, Verkehr, Energie und Kommunikation UVEK, Bundesamt für Strassen Zürich in German
Gutierrez-Martinez, J.-M., Castillo-Martinez, A., Medina-Merodio, J.-A., Aguado-Delgado, J., Martinez-Herraiz, J.-J., Gutierrez-Martinez, J.-M., Castillo-Martinez, A., Medina-Merodio, J.-A., Aguado-Delgado, J. & Martinez-Herraiz, J.-J. (2017) Smartphones as a Light Measurement Tool: Case of Study Applied Sciences, 7(6), 616. 10.3390/app7060616 Gutierrez-Martinez J.-M. Castillo-Martinez A. Medina
-makers and citizens that is legitimate, as in addition the choice of goals and the positioning of participants (and/or their representatives) entitled to be the gatekeepers of local communities – which are never neutral – require tools to measure the degree and intensity of power shared by political, policy and social agents ( Cornwall 2004 ). According to the main literature, a clear definition and problematisation of the success achieved or not achieved by participatory processes is the first step to critically understanding whether and to what extent normative goals of
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
in the cityscape outrank the quality of soccer-related graffiti. Consequently, fan groups can show rivals, who the predominant club in the region is, especially in case of neighboring clubs. Graffiti can also be applied as a tool for criticism of commercialized soccer. Therefore, the old name of the stadium, which in most cases does not bear the name of any sponsor, is often visualized around the new home ground ( Blickfang Ultra 2008 ; Grün 2016 ). A very recent example for the analysis of soccer-related graffiti for a Polish city (Poznan) can be found in E
Esraa Jamal, David Scott, Ahmed Idris and Gordon Lovegrove
of the elderly.
The final distribution method used was a combination of the MTurk tool and a snowballing technique (i.e., a sampling technique that recruits participants through current participants often used when facing difficulties reaching the target population). Confidentiality is an issue when sending questionnaires through regular mail, phone, or emails due to its association with individual identification. In this research, participant privacy was protected by giving each questionnaire a unique ID number, and by separating respondent answers from their
market that limited the scope for speculating on property.
The article’s objective is to present the assumptions of the gentrification approach as a tool that is possibly useful for the purposes of evaluating urban policy. Gentrification seems to be one of the most important contemporary urban processes, even though it is judged in different ways. Plenty of public actions, including those performed by public sector, privately-owned companies and grassroots movements, seem to have an effect on the emergence of this process. Gentrification, understood as a
. 1 .) which has the highest impact on the creation of participation processes. Currently, there are only a few public participation methodologies available, while multiple existing tools are too fine-grained to establish a complete process. It should be stated that the majority of participation processes employ a combination of different methods, which were combined, phased or even restructured according the requirements of the specific process or context.
To define the range of the research, a geographical limitation to Germanic countries has also been set