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Preußens bis zum Ende des Staates 1947. Analog und doch völlig verschieden gestaltete sich eine ›provinzielle Staatsbildung‹ in den Niederlanden. Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad und Paul van Trigt zeigen in ihrem Beitrag am Beispiel Südhollands, wie sich Provinzialverwaltungen an der Staatsbildung beteiligten, indem sie sich als administrative Institutionen des neuen Einheitsstaates erfanden und mittels ›little tools of knowledge‹ Zu diesem Konzept vgl. Peter Becker / William Clark: »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker / William Clark (Hg.): Little Tools of

-Claude Scholsem (Substitute Member, Belgium), Mr Jorgen Steen Sørensen (Member, Denmark). The opinion is also reprinted in D. Carrillo (ed.) and others, The Icelandic Federalist Papers, 2018, p. 191–243. Frymus M., Nyks Ł., Policastro P. (2015), Great Green Wall: Africa for Africa , feature film produced by World Peace Lab and Nyks Media (executive producer), M. Frymus, director, Ł. Nyks, pictures, P. Policastro, scientific supervision. T. Gylfason, A. Meuwese, Digital Tools and the Derailment of Iceland’s New Constitution, CESIFO working paper no. 5997 Jarrett E. (2015

Abstract

In the light of the relevant terms of this issue, »state«, »space« and »administration«, this contribution considers the intertwining between representations of order, their administration, and the governance of the subjects in the sovereignty areas of Salzburg and Tyrol in the Zillertal. The different ideas of space – investigated from the perspectives of various groups of the population, of local officials, and of the government centers – changed throughout the examined period. At its beginning, the authorities in the government centers endeavored to keep the borders open for mutual exchange, whereas the local officials used their administrative tools to stage a competition with the officials of the neighboring district, e.g. by blocking and redirecting the subjects’ pathways of movement. In this situation, a more open construction of space confronted a more mistrustful one aimed at enclosure and the guarding of borders. In the context of negotiations for a general border settlement between Tyrol and Salzburg, and on the basis of newly developed conceptions of a state as having a clearly defined sovereignty area, capable of being governed without any foreign influence up to its borders, the interventions of the government centers started to change. Borders were adjusted and a clear assignment of the subjects was demanded. However, the more an exact correspondence between space and sovereignty was pursued, the more obvious the impossibility of this undertaking became. Seemingly well-demarcated border lines appeared vague when regarded closely. Their official description was at odds with the subjects’ construction and usage of spaces. While their spatial behaviors were determined by the norms of the sovereign centers and controlled by the administrative work of the officials, the subjects developed their own strategies for dealing with these interventions in their constructions of space and adjusting to them.

zagadnienia, A. Adamska, E. Mączyńska (eds.), Warszawa 2012, p. 401-415 [Submitting an application for bankruptcy as a tool in the struggle for controlling the public company, [in:] Bankruptcy and repair companies.[Selected issues]. Feliga P., Stanowisko prawne syndyka w procesie dotyczącym masy upadłości, Warszawa 2013 [The legal position of the trustee in the bankruptcy]. Flaga-Gieruszyńska K., Prawo upadłościowe i naprawcze, Warszawa 2012 [Bankruptcy and Reorganization Law]. Hrycaj A., Th e Bankruptcy Court and the Judge-Commissioner in Poland, www

of infrastructural work, involvement in welfare and health arrangements, and the monitoring of economic developments. We foreground the ›little tools of knowledge‹, such as periodical reports, circulars, statistical investigations, handbooks, and the like, to capture the administrative mentality of the officials in action. Our choice of sources has been inspired by Peter Becker / William Clark (ed.): Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001. It is the thick description and contextualization of

shapes knowledge. Knowledge circulates between different historical actors with different agendas and thus forms an important element in producing knowledges. For the idea of circulating knowledge, see Philipp Sarasin, »Was ist Wissensgeschichte?«, in: Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 36 (2011), p. 159–172. In the case of the ›Head of Household‹ it was one specific tool that circulated between different historical actors and produced knowledge. This specific tool leads us to the administrative component of the story: knowledge about

. First, this critical approach enables them to understand the position they occupy in the academic field, thus creating awareness that can lead them to question the intellectual categories they have used to study administrative history as well as their research practices. Second, the theory of fields provides the intellectual tools to conduct empirical studies that present generalizable conclusions. If this has been a goal more easily achieved in the social sciences, historical studies have struggled more with the possibility of reaching conclusions that can possibly

vaccine story: the organisation of administrative correspondence, the censorship of medical information, the forms furnished by the administration for registering vaccinations, or the engravings of vaccine pustules. It is through these »details«, these »little tools of knowledge« Peter Becker, William Clark, »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker, William Clark (eds.), Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, p. 1–34. that the proof of vaccine’s perfection was administered and biopolitics exercised. This articles

operations and cultural techniques, as they rely on symbols, persons, and material artifacts, interchange them, and are responsible for investigating and punishing someone as a querulous person. Of course, a media history of the excessive sense of justice deals with people who are labeled querulous – that goes without saying. However, one dare not fall into the trap of overlooking the cultural tools and media which are hidden behind litigious paranoia. The ›Creation‹ of Querulanten Before querulency was investigated as a form of insanity, it was a bureaucratic problem

quantifiable change in mood and sentiment across translations in documents, Whelchel and Fellbaum speak of »misconstrued communications«, which the administration seeks to overcome. John Whelchel / Christiane Fellbaum: »Sentiment Analysis of Foreign Documents to Detect Translation Bias. Misconstrued Communications in the European Parliament«, Independent Work Report Spring 2014, online at: http://www.johnwhelchel.com/static/mysite/index/IWBiases.pdf (1. 8. 2018). Algorithms become its tool of international sentiment expression alignment. Whatever the purpose and chosen