Coming from a Nordic environment, professionally working in teacher education, both authors engaged in developmental work and research in the Uluguru mountains in Tanzania. The research is carried out in a community-based organization for vulnerable youth, Mgeta Orphan Education Foundation (MOEF), which builds on principles of action learning and action research. We have followed and participated in the development of the organization since 2010, and this article builds on data gathered in 2016-17. We will show and discuss some of the transformations we have witnessed, mainly in the older members. The transformations seem to have an emergent character, and we examine further factors we have seen as crucial for transforming the lives of the young people in the orphan education project. Surprisingly, duty was a factor coming forth in the data. The youth perceived duty in a relational way, mainly caused by inner motivation nurtured by the example of their coordinator, Solomon, and by facing the continuous, emergent need for assistance in their local communities. Less surprisingly, belonging transpired as a fundamental factor. Previously, we have analyzed the transformational learning among the youngsters, and identified a set of transformational tools (Gjotterud, Krogh, Dyngeland, & Mwakasumba, 2015). Building on the transformational tools, we have derived a model for Relational Transformation. Transformative action research is the approach we follow, and one aim of this article is to contribute to the understanding of the reciprocity of transformative processes in transformative research.
Dennett, D. (2000). Making tools for thinking. In Sperber, D. (Ed), Metarepresentation: A multidisciplinary perspective . Oxford: Oxford University Press: 17-29.
Dycke, R., Peebles, P., Roll, P., Wilkinson, D. (1965). Cosmic Black-Body Radiation. Astrophysical Journal Letters , 142: 414-419.
Fodor, J. (1983): The Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology , Cambridge: MIT Press.
Frege, G. (1884). Grundlagen der Arithmetik . Breslau: Marcus. 1934.
Lumsden, C., Wilson, E. (1981). Genes, mind and culture . Cambridge: Harvard University
VR Technology, Frontiers in Robotics and AI , 3 (3), 1–21.
Mazzola, G., 2011, Musical Creativity. Strategies and Tools in Composition and Improvisation , Berlin/Heidelberg, Springer.
Mazzurega, M. et al., 2011, Self-other bodily merging in the context of synchronous but arbitrary-related multisensory inputs, Experimental Brain Research , 213 (2–3), 213–221.
Melzoff, A. and Moore, M., 1977, Immitation of Facial and Manual Gestures by Human Neonates, Science , 198, 75–78.
Melzoff, A. et al, 2010, Social Robots are psychological agents for
 Hixson, C. and Paretti, M. C. (2014). Texts as tools to support innovation: Using the business model canvas to teach engineering entrepreneurs about audiences. Professional Communication Conference (IPCC), 2014 IEEE International doi: 10.1109/IPCC.2014.7020368
 Jain, R. K. (2011). Entrepreneurial Competencies: A meta-analysis and comprehensive conceptualization for future research. Vision: The Journal of
In this paper, I will reflect on the initial reconnaissance, action, and reflection cycle of my doctoral research, exploring Community Philosophy as a tool for critical parental engagement in a primary school (Elliot, 1991). I will examine how I reflexively engaged with my influence on participants, which then significantly influenced the framing of, and the planning for, the second action research cycle.
The challenges that the initial stages of my research have presented will be considered using Herr and Anderson’s five components of validity (Herr and Anderson, 2014). I then use the four Chronotopes of Research developed by Kamberelis and Dimitriadis (2005) to discuss the implications for my understanding of positioning, authenticity and transformation, and the resultant reframing of my research.
In order to set the context for my research, I begin by giving a brief overview of my own interest in ‘democratic voice’. This is followed by an exploration of the current ‘closing the gap’ discourse in English education (OFSTED, 2013; Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission, 2014; Wilshaw, 2013), to demonstrate how parental engagement has become individualised, lacks democratic voice, and often valorises middle class parents. Hence I will argue that there is a need for a more democratic and collective model of parental engagement, and make a case for justifying Community Philosophy as a possible model.
. J. (2009). Making sense of social studies with visualization tools. Social Education, 73(3), 124-126
 Brooks, B., Gilbuena, D., Krause, S., & Koretsky, M. (2014). Using word clouds for fast, formative assessment of students’ short written responses. Chemical Engineering Education, 48(4), 190-198
 Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2013). Teaching thematic analysis: Overcoming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning. The psychologist, 26(2), 120-123
 Cao, N., & Cui, W. (2016). Introduction to text
Buber, M. (1965). I and Thou (2nd ed). (Trans R.G. Smith). New York, USA: Scribner.
Carr, W.& Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action Research . London, UK: Falmer Press.
Clark, C.M. (Ed.) (2001). Talking Shop: Authentic Conversation and Teacher Learning . New York, USA: Teachers College Press.
Douglas, A.S. & Ellis, V. (2011) Connecting Does Not Necessarily Mean Learning: Course Handbooks as Mediating Tools in School–University Partnerships. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(5), 465–476.
In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000). Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape or science visit to a local museum. This paper considers the use of virtual world field trips (VWFTs) within the context of a pre-service Teacher Education programme. The paper presents data from one undergraduate module offered on a programme of initial teacher education. The paper identifies three significant elements of virtual world field trips: place, people and content. First, the virtual world can provide access to places not possible in the offline context as a result of geographic, economic or religious factors. Second, exposure to and dialogue with a variety of world views can challenge students’ assumptions, facilitate reflection and provide an opportunity for oneto-one teaching encounters. Third, from a teacher educator perspective, engagement in virtual world field trips can provide a space for teachers to model teaching methodologies and model creative learning techniques, thus providing student teachers with an insight into different approaches to teaching.
) Bridging the gap between policy and practice: A framework for technological intervention. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 6(1), 13-27
 de Freitas, S. & Conole, G. (2010) The influence of pervasive and integrative tools on learners’ experiences and expectations of study. In R. Sharpe, H. Beetham & S. de Freitas (Eds), Rethinking learning in the Digital Age, London & New York: Routledge
 Ellis, R.A. and Goodyear, P. (2010) Student experiences of e-learning in higher education: the ecology of sustainable innovation. London
://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/45714/. (Accessed 25 July 2016)
 Hardie, A., and Alcorn, M. (2000). Parents and the school working together to achieve success - one school’s experience. In Wolfendale, S., and Bastiani, J. (eds.) The contribution of Parents to School Effectiveness. London: David Fulton. p. 102-115
 Haines Lyon, C. (2015). Exploring Community Philosophy as a tool for parental engagement in a primary school. International Journal for Transformative Research. Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 39-48, ISSN (Online) 2353-5415, DOI: 10.1515/ijtr-2015