The problem associated with the musical “language” of a particular composer can be understood either literally, i.e. with some possible analogies to natural language, or metaphorically, as a substitute of style, technique, or manner. I try to combine both usages. In fact, my approach to composing music is not so much - to develop a consistent language ready for use in multiple instances and thus to attain a recognisable personal style, but rather - to try to build a tool for use in one particular composition on many levels of musical “grammar”. Another basic problem is the proportion between impulse and design as defined in a well-known book by Andrzej Panufnik.
The examples discussed illustrate some core problems of the music creation process, such as the deliberately incomplete ‘‘monadic’’ form (Gamma from String Quartet No. 3); the evolution of style in the process of composition and its dependence on the medium (Rondeau for wind quintet); and purely intuitive composition (Con tenerezza from Cinque pezzi diversi).
Paweł Hendrich’s compositions can be compared to macrocrystals - solids composed of numerous small and identical elements, constructed in accordance with a strict pattern. Importantly, the same internal crystal structure can produce forms highly diversified with regard to external shape. Similarly, this composer’s works are very precisely structured already on the level of individual sounds, but this structure is only a tool for the creation of very clear musical macroforms. The idea of emergence - of new values resulting from the combination of simple elements - is of key importance to this composer.
The paper presents the principles of organising music material in the works of Paweł Hendrich. These are, among others: periodicity, multilayered structures, permutations and flexibility. These ideas are reflected in the musical work in many dimensions, both on the level of microand macro-structure. Their application exerts a major impact on the forms created by the composer.
With the development of his musical language, the composer transforms his initial material more and more radically. Simple elements and processes that underlie the construction of his works become progressively more and more difficult to reconstruct, largely due to the application of a computer in the composition process. A comprehensive look at Paweł Hendrich’s entire output of compositions proves that his work is emergent as a whole. With each new piece, a new element is added, but all of them form a coherent system. No wonder, then, that one of the composer’s works bears the telling title of Emergon.
What is most surprising in the 150-year history of the gramophone (phonograph, record player) is that it has not ended even today. It might appear that progress in phonography which took place in the twentieth century should have made the gramophone a relic of the industrial age. Investigating the reasons why this device is still alive, the author argues that if it survived all through the twentieth century and found is place in the digital age on the eve of the new century, it was only owing to its hidden potential, which allowed creative individuals to rediscover it, find its new uses, attribute new functions and assign it new roles; in short, reinterpret it in diverse ways, the outcome being gramophone music - a new discursive practice with a varied esthetic appearance.
In the first part of the study the author refers to the history of those gramophone reinterpretations and successively describes early literary impressions of the gramophone, the phonograph postulates of Lászlo Moholy-Nagy, Paul Hindemith’s and Ernst Toch’s Grammophonmusik, John Cage’s Imaginary Landscapes, the art of D.J.’s and turntablists, Christian Marclay “creative gramophony”, and experimental turntablism.
The second part of the article analyzes the esthetics of gramophone music. The author distinguishes three trends in it: in the first the gramophone is subordinated to the classical concept of music, in the second it is used to create poly-style sound collages, in the third the gramophone is the tool for the implementations of the principles of conceptual art.
In conclusion the author writes that it is chiefly owing to these reinterpretations which made the sound-recording and playback invention a composer’s tool, a musical instrument and finally an object of elaborate artistic experiments that the gramophone was able to carry out a historic, technological and conceptual revolution in the twentieth-century and early twenty-first century culture.
Sound banks are collections of sound samples from musical instruments of the symphonic orchestra, traditional instruments from various areas of the world and sounds of virtual devices, such as synthesizers, which are increasingly present in contemporary musical creations. Sound banks are loaded in a device called sampler, which can edit and play them. The article describes analog and especially virtual samplers, complex devices that can store or play sounds from specific libraries of sound banks. It also defines and catalogs the main types of digital virtual instruments (that include traditional symphonic orchestra instruments, ones with modern electronic instruments/percussion instruments, and ethnic collections for various geographic areas. Our research on digital applications used in music writing relies on 20 years of experience. Currently, applications are valuable tools for composers and musicians, and for everyone in the contemporary music industry. In 2006, I created the first collection of sound banks made in Romania “The Essence of Panflute”, library containing sound samples 583, grouped in 33 virtual instruments. This is the most complex virtual version of the Romanian pan flute, played by the renowned Cătălin Tîrcolea. The library is designed and edited by Cătălin Răsvan, for the company S.C. Canira Music Internațional. This collection of sound banks presents in minute detail the laborious process of recording and editing this virtual library. “The Essence of Panflute” has seen international acclaim, is distributed by the German company Best Service, one of the major companies in the world, was reviewed in the most prestigious magazine in this field, Sound on Sound, and has opened the door for current/future creators of music. We hope that it is only the beginning for our work in the research and development of digital virtual sound, which is a special category for the instruments in our country.
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Assessment is a distinct stage within the teaching process, aiming to measure the level of the knowledge, skills and competences acquired within a given time frame. The discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation involves a synthesis between the theoretical and the practical side of the matter, and, as a result, it uses specific assessment tools for each side. Modern assessment methods involve personalized systems based on the diversification of types of docimological tests, quizzes, practical tests, etc. In this study we will present a series of personal contributions referring to the contents specific to the discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation taught at university.
This study will only deal with the Neolithic period which we distinguish from the Eneolithic one in the sense that in this period man only used tools made of stone and later on, in Eneolithic (Chalcolithic), he started using copper. In its first period, the Neolithic has new characteristics as a result of the progress of human communities; thus, as opposed to the Palaeolithic, man starts a new period with changed “clothes”. Firstly, man now starts to create and appreciate beauty as the Palaeolithic art did not have aesthetic purposes. But an important transformation regards the habitat, Neolithic settlements and buildings reflecting the increasing stability of communities, thus taking a step forward from Palaeolithic and their evolution to the higher levels of the future society, the Eneolithic one.
Complex and integrated nature of issues such as globalization, migration, interculturalism, environmental protection, information explosion, claims a transdisciplinary approach to education and music education. To cope with changes characteristic of the contemporary world, students need as generic skills: the ability to learn how to learn, ability and problem-solving assessment. Transdisciplinarity - involves such issues often highly complex, using tools and rules specific to certain science investigations using concepts of these sciences, but in other contexts. Students are interested in concrete problems faced in everyday life and looking for more of these explanations and practical solutions. To identify issues related to cross-disciplinary dimension of music education concepts will investigate disciplinary, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary are four arrows of a single bow: knowledge.
Students and Teachers are an epic symbiosis in process of direct learning and academic advancement. Nowadays, this interaction is more bonded and interdependent with technology and equipment‟s, which in a whole system expands learning horizons. The digital era has introduced in the education system new modes of learning, a new way of life and style in schooling. This phenomenon changed the methods of teaching in universities, where lectures were accompanied with concrete explanations of works in modeling, in structural and conceptual sense. The relationship between a student of architecture and teachers broadened with introduction of computer aided modeling and simulation tools to construct those ideas into the reality. The study presented in this paper investigates conceptual methods in art, architecture, creativity and innovation in academic education, focusing on interactive teaching issues, and methods. The research methods consist of empirical observation carried out during 25 years of experience in academia, and direct observation of teaching methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolutive process in teaching relations between architectural students and teachers, with the focus in educational competencies and communication skills. Findings indicate that through artistic concepts of “Modelarium” as an unconventional learning space, a tool and space that enables the partnership. An informal meeting place for artistic interaction, but, concurrently it is a formal part of the educational system in architectural studies, a strategy by which we can bring more: time, conceptual awareness of space and interactive teaching in architecture, which bonds multidimensional threads between students and teachers; thus, fostering a powerful sense of partnership, avoiding boredom and passive learning, while facing the challenges, associated with the development of technology, life style, real issues and global world trends. Research suggests that uniform and/or partially new strategy, cannot respond to all specific issues faced by students in day to day basis. Therefore, new teaching strategies must involve new partnerships, a brand new and a redefined role as a holistic symbiosis, as an response to a less functional and/or conventional academic system. Partnership, a new working symbiosis between students and teachers is an answer to the needs of working together simultaneously towards continuous improvement of academia processes.
Bard Bajçinovci, Uliks Bajçinovci and Bujar Bajçinovci
Education for urban development is a process with a primary role to preserve and use of environment, to manage spatial planning and urban development as a whole holistic system. In relation to education for sustainable development, creativity of urban planning and design can significantly improve quality of life of their urbanites. Ergo, students and teachers are an epic symbiosis in a process of teaching. Actually, this interaction can be more bonded and interdependent with high-tech didactic tools. The digital era has implemented in the education system new creative methods of learning, a new way style in schooling. The new turn of the century began a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of urban, demographic and education phenomena. The study and aim of this paper are to examine the teaching process, with the focus on creativity of interactive education. The research methods consist of empirical observation, and direct observation of teaching methods. Findings indicate that through an informal meeting places for interactive education, the teaching process in architectural studies can bring more: sustainable development and awareness of space, a didactic process which bonds multidimensional threads between students and teachers. Research concludes that uniform old teaching platform, cannot respond to all specific issues faced by students in this globalization era. Therefore, new teaching strategies must involve creativity of interactive education.