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P. Parichha, K. Basu, A. Bandyopadhyay and P. Mukhopadhyay
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In this paper it has been argued that the theory of conceptual maps developed recently by Paul M. Churchland provides support for Wittgenstein’s claim that language is a tool for acting in the world. The role of language is to coordinate and shape the conceptual maps of the members of the given language community, reducing the cross-individual cognitive idiosyncrasies and paving the way for joint cognitive enterprises. Moreover, Churchland’s theory also explains our tendency to speak of language as consisting of concepts which correspond to things we encounter in the world. The puzzle of common sense reference is no longer a puzzle: while at the fundamental level language remains a tool for orchestrating conceptual maps, the fact that the maps encode some communally shared categorization of experience fuels our talk of concepts capturing the essences of things, natural kinds, prototypes, etc.
attacks in grid using information divergence. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29.1, Elsevier, 2013, 429-441.
ZHAO, H., LIU, X., LI, X. 2011. A Taxonomy of Peer-to-Peer Desktop Grid Paradigms. In Cluster Computing: The Journal of Networks, Software Tools, and Applications. Springer, 2011, 14(2), 2011, 129-144.
One of the main assumptions of mathematical tools in science is represented by the idea of measurability and additivity of reality. For discovering the physical universe additive measures such as mass, force, energy, temperature, etc. are used. Economics and conventional business intelligence try to continue this empiricist tradition and in statistical and econometric tools they appeal only to the measurable aspects of reality. However, a lot of important variables of economic systems cannot be observable and additive in principle. These variables can be called symbolic values or symbolic meanings and studied within symbolic interactionism, the theory developed since George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer. In statistical and econometric tools of business intelligence we accept only phenomena with causal connections measured by additive measures. In the paper we show that in the social world we deal with symbolic interactions which can be studied by non-additive labels (symbolic meanings or symbolic values). For accepting the variety of such phenomena we should avoid additivity of basic labels and construct a new probabilistic method in business intelligence based on non-Archimedean probabilities.
Fisher information is of key importance in estimation theory. It is used as a tool for characterizing complex signals or systems, with applications, e.g. in biology, geophysics and signal processing. The problem of minimizing Fisher information in a set of distributions has been studied by many researchers. In this paper, based on some rather simple statistical reasoning, we provide an alternative proof for the fact that Gaussian distribution with finite variance minimizes the Fisher information over all distributions with the same variance.
A.J.V. Radhika, S.V.S. Girija and A.V. Dattatreya Rao
By applying wrapping (Dattatreya Rao et al (2007)), offsetting (Girija et al (2013 and Radhika et al (2013)) and stereographic projection (Phani et al (2012)) have constructed circular models. Further the circular models based on the Rising Sun function are motivated by purely mathematical considerations as a smoothing function and possible application. This work takes a further step in this direction using several mathematical tools such as Real Analysis along with MATLAB and are applied to enlarge the horizon of Mathematical Statistics. Here an attempt is made to construct new circular models using the Rising Sun function and also the circular rising sun lemma is proposed
This article provides a detailed description of robotic weapons and unmanned systems currently used by the U.S. Military and its allies, and an ethical assessment of their actual or potential use on the battlefield. Firstly, trough a review of scientific literature, reports, and newspaper articles, a catalogue of ethical problems related to military robotics is compiled. Secondly, possible solutions for these problems are offered, by relying also on analytic tools provided by the new field of roboethics. Finally, the article explores possible future developments of military robotics and present six reasons why a war between humans and automata is unlikely to happen in the 21st century.
Branislav Hrúz, Iveta Dirgová Ľuptáková and Miroslav Beňo
Petri nets represent a powerful tool for modeling the discrete event systems. The Petri net markings correspond to the system states. The infinity of the marking set means that the Petri net is unbounded and this may be the sign of an incorrect system model. In that case instead of the reachability set and the reachability graph the coverability set and the coverability multigraph can be used to represent the Petri net state space. A systematic way of building the notion of the coverability set and coverability multigraph based on the notion of the ω -marking is given in the paper. Algorithm for its construction is introduced. Then the use of the coverability multigraph for the analysis of several properties of the unbounded Petri nets is described.
The article deals with the problem of time in the context of several theories of modem physics. This fundamental concept inevitably arises in physical theories, but so far there is no adequate description of it in the philosophy of science. In the theory of relativity, quantum field theory. Standard Model of particle physics, theory of loop quantum gravity, superstring theory and other most recent theories the idea of time is shown explicitly or not. Sometimes, such as in the special theory of relativity, it plays a significant role and sometimes it does not. But anyway it exists and is implied by the content of the theory, which in some cases directly includes its mathematical tools. Fundamental difference of space-time processes in microcosm and macrocosm is of particular importance for solving the problem. In this regard, a need to understand the time in the way it appears in modem physics, to describe it in the language of philosophy arises (satisfactory for time description mathematical tools also do not exist). This will give an opportunity to get closer to the answer on question of time characteristics. And even if we do not obtain the exact answer, we will still be able to formulate the right question about its nature. For this purpose, the present research carries out analysis of the key theories of modern physics with regard to historical and scientific, historical and philosophical perspectives, hi some cases, this gives an opportunity to detect the succession of the associated with time perception ideas, their development, as well as the origination of fundamentally new ones. During the analysis, the conect characteristics of time are formulated from the point of view of physical theory and the attempt to state the nature of time is made. On the ground of conducted research, the conclusions about current state of the problem and its future solution perspectives are drawn.