Asaduzzaman Khan, Riaz Uddin, Naznin Alam, Shuhana Sultana, Mahbub-Ul Alam and Rushdia Ahmed
health problems such as depressive- and anxiety-disorders peaks during the age of 10–29 years ( Whiteford et al., 2013 ). Given the early onset, it is crucial to start assessing and monitoring mental health problems of individuals when they are young.
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale is a screening tool to assess the level of distress associated with non-specific psychological symptoms at the population level ( Kessler et al., 2002 ). Two versions of the scale – K6, a 6-item scale embedded in a 10-item scale (K10) – were developed from a pool of 612 items
Of the 9 controlled clinical trials included in our review, 7 were randomized controlled clinical trials and 2 were non-randomized controlled trials. The 2 non-randomized controlled trials were assumed to have a relatively high risk of bias. The risk of bias for the 7 randomized controlled trials was assessed with the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias (Julian P T Higgins et al., 2011 ). The results are presented in figures 2 and 3.Studies using mixed guarana interventions were thought to have a relatively high risk of bias, even if the trial was
Katja Koelkebeck, Maja Pantovic Stefanovic, Dorota Frydecka, Claudia Palumbo, Olivier Andlauer, Florian Riese, Nikolina Jovanovic and Mariana Pinto da Costa
and research days ( Collins, Meyer & Dawson, 1999 ). These initiatives could be complemented by newer e-leaning tools, such as the one presented by Himelhoch and colleagues (2015) , who implemented a formal training course for systematic reviews and meta-analyses online. Moreover, recent initiatives of the EPA use Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for the training of specific skills independent of localisation. This might also overcome financial or institutional barriers that prevent ECPs to participate, specifically if no institutional support or funding is
to suffer more from depression compared to those living in semi-urban areas ( Babatsikou et al., 2018 ).
The difference in prevalence of depression may be attributed to several reasons such as the place of living, that is, urban or rural, the specific characteristics of each population, the male and female ratio, the educational and economic level of the participants, the size of the sample as well as the diagnostic tool used to assess depression.
The prevalence of depression depends on many factors, demographic or health related. Female gender is associated
Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno
current symptom profile was collected on several domains. We used the Italian versions of Symptom Check List-SCL-90-R ( Prunas et al., 2012 ) in order to get a broad picture of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology; the Beck Depression Inventory-BDI-II ( Sica, Ghisi, & Lange, 2007 ) for measuring the severity of depression; the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 with subscales, a self-report tool, measuring constructs shown to be clinically relevant in individuals with EDs symptoms (i.e., drive for thinness-DT, bulimia-B and body dissatisfaction-BD) ( Giannini
Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Olanrewaju Isaac Owoeye, Almu Bello and Linda Ekele Iyadi
, only three schools were used for the study. These selected schools were: Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU); School of Nursing (SON), and the Community Health Officers’ Training Programme (CHOTP) school. UDU runs a six-year academic program in Medicine (all the medical students in UDUTHS campus are either in their 4 th , 5 th , or 6 th year, while those in their 1 st to 3 rd year are situated in another campus). SON runs a three-year program in General Nursing. CHOTP runs a two-year program in Community Health.
The study tool used in this present
methods indicate the tools and the ways the hypothesis was tested. Results describe the data collection and analysis that lead to a confirmation or rejection of the hypothesis. Conclusions must indicate the confirmation or refusal of the hypothesis, validate the outcome, may explore the practical or theoretical relevance of the findings and may provide specific recommendations for necessary future research.
The importance of the abstract must not be underestimated as most researchers will decide if they are going to acquire and read the full paper based on the
tool to use in clinical, research, and primary care settings to deal with different aspects of parenting in Bangladesh. Certainly, it can bolster the mental health care in Bangladesh, especially child psychiatric set up. Regular use of PSDQ Bangla in necessary clinical setting, especially to deal with child psychiatric disorders and research setting, would significantly benefit the clients. Larger studies involving more heterogeneous parents may help to provide a more complete picture of current the state, desired style, and improved ways of parenting to improve the
Faruk Abdullahi Mohammed, Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Miracle Ayomikun Adesina, Nwafor Jacob Njideka and Hamza Abubakar Sadiq
To explore the reasons why shisha smokers indulge in shisha smoking habit, and to also explore their attitudes towards quitting shisha smoking habit
A total of 45 current shisha smokers participated in the study. The study tool was a paper questionnaire. Snowballing technique was the sampling method adopted in the recruitment of study participants. Data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 20 software
The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 25.8 (±5.5) years and majority (71.1%) of them were males. The top two reasons why the participants smoke shisha were: “for pleasure” (40%); and “to feel among” (33.3%). The majority (66.7%) of the participants wanted to quit shisha smoking habits. However, only 54.5% (18/33) of them indicated that they made efforts at quitting the behavior within the past one year. Also, only 66.7% (28/42) and 65.6% (21/32) of those participants who had a close friend and a close family member/relative that smoke shisha, respectively, wanted to quit shisha smoking habit
This study shows diverse reasons why shisha smokers engage in shisha smoking habit. Also, many of these smokers were willing to quit shisha smoking habits but, unfortunately, they are yet to quit the habit. This demonstrates the need for social support of shisha smokers in our environment towards quitting shisha smoking habit
populations were of both inpatient and outpatient groups. There did not appear to be any significant difference between the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in those patients taking clozapine in the inpatient compared to the outpatient setting (see table 1 ).
Description of studies providing episode and point prevalence of clozapine associated nocturnal enuresis
Assessment of prevalence
Prevalence of CANE