Tânia Moniz, Diana Dias da Silva, Helena Carmo, Baltazar de Castro, Maria de Lourdes Bastos and Maria Rangel
al-Khafaji B, Kralovic S, Smith RD. (1997). Increased hepatic iron in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an autopsy study. Mod Pathol 10 : 474–480.
Amit A, Chaudhary R, Yadav A, Suman SS, Narayan S, Das VN, Pandey K, Singh SK, Singh BK, Ali V, Das P, Bimal S. (2014). Evaluation of Leishmania donovani disulfide isomerase as a potential target of cellular immunity against visceral leishmaniasis. Cell Immunol 289 : 76–85.
Berridge MV, Herst PM, Tan AS. (2005). Tetrazolium dyes as tools in cell biology: new insights into their
Veronika Stara, Mojmir Mach, Eduard Ujhazy, Boris Liptak and Zdenka Gasparova
-like neurodegeneration. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 35 : 454–462.
Gates NJ, Sachdev PS, Fiatarone Singh MA, Valenzuela M. (2011). Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: a systematic review. BMC Geriatr 11 : 55.
Geloso MC, Corvino V, Michetti F. (2011). Trimethyltin-induced hippocampal degeneration as a tool to investigate neurodegenerative process. Neurochem Int 58 : 729–739.
Gutiérrez-Rexach J, Schatz S. (2016). Cognitive impairment and pragmatics. Springerplus 5 :127.
Kaur S, Chhabra R, Nehru B. (2013). Ginkgo biloba extract
David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Brian S. Hooker, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Kristin G. Homme and Mark R. Geier
, Davis RL, Barlow WE, Thompson RS, Mullooly JP, Black SB, Shinefield HR, Vadheim CM, Marcy SM, Ward JI, Wise RP, Wassilak SG, Hadler SC. (1997). Vaccine Safety Datalink: project: a new tool for improving vaccine safety monitoring in the United States. The Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Pediatrics 99 (6): 765–773.
Church JA, Fair DA, Dosenbach NU, Cohen Al, Miezin FM, Petersen SE, Schlaggar BL. (2009). Control networks in paediatric Tourette syndrome show immature and anomalous patterns of functional connectivity. Brain 132 : 225–238.
Cubo E. (2012
The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure.
Cholinesterase based amperometric biosensors for assay of anticholinergic compounds
Biosensors are analytical devices being approachable for multiple analytes assay. Here, biosensors with intercepted acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are presented as tool for assay of anticholinergic compounds such as pesticides, nerve agents and some natural toxins. Principle of assay is based on evaluation of cholinesterase activity and its pertinent decrease in presence of analyte. Nerve agents, pesticides, anticholinergic drugs useable for treatment of Alzheimer's disease as well as myasthenia gravis and aflatoxins are enlisted as compounds simply analyzable by cholinesterase biosensors.
Jana Kopincová, Angelika Púzserová and Iveta Bernátová
Biochemical aspects of nitric oxide synthase feedback regulation by nitric oxide
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small gas molecule derived from at least three isoforms of the enzyme termed nitric oxide synthase (NOS). More than 15 years ago, the question of feedback regulation of NOS activity and expression by its own product was raised. Since then, a number of trials have verified the existence of negative feedback loop both in vitro and in vivo. NO, whether released from exogenous donors or applied in authentic NO solution, is able to inhibit NOS activity and also intervenes in NOS expression processes by its effect on transcriptional nuclear factor NF-κB. The existence of negative feedback regulation of NOS may provide a powerful tool for experimental and clinical use, especially in inflammation, when massive NOS expression may be detrimental.
Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods
The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA.
This paper provides a brief overview of the topic "alternative methods in toxicology" and focuses on pre-validated and validated alternative methods and their position in the modern toxicology.
Islam M. Sadiqul, Saimon Mohiful Kabir, Zannatul Ferdous, Khan Mst. Mansura and Rahman Md. Khalilur
An in vivo study was carried out on the freshwater fish Barbonymus gonionotus to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the organophosphate quinalphos. The fish were exposed to sub-lethal doses of quinalphos (0%, 10%, 25%, and 50% of LC50) for a period of 30 days. Analysis of biochemical characteristics (protein and lipid contents of different organs), nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes (NAE) and morphological abnormalities of erythrocytes (MAE) were performed on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at post-treatment intervals of 0 and 30 days. The biochemical results revealed a significant dose-dependent decline in protein and lipid contents and increase in the frequencies of NAE as well as MAE. Our findings also confirmed that the morphological deformations of erythrocytes in addition to NAE on fish erythrocytes in vivo are effective tools in determining the potential genotoxicity of organophosphates.
Flavonoids in prevention of diseases with respect to modulation of Ca-pump function
Flavonoids, natural phenolic compounds, are known as agents with strong antioxidant properties. In many diseases associated with oxidative/nitrosative stress and aging they provide multiple biological health benefits. Ca2+-ATPases belong to the main calcium regulating proteins involved in the balance of calcium homeostasis, which is impaired in oxidative/nitrosative stress and related diseases or aging. The mechanisms of Ca2+-ATPases dysfunction are discussed, focusing on cystein oxidation and tyrosine nitration. Flavonoids act not only as antioxidants but are also able to bind directly to Ca2+-ATPases, thus changing their conformation, which results in modulation of enzyme activity.
Dysfunction of Ca2+-ATPases is summarized with respect to their posttranslational and conformational changes in diseases related to oxidative/nitrosative stress and aging. Ca2+-ATPases are discussed as a therapeutic tool and the possible role of flavonoids in this process is suggested.
Kristina Belovicova, Eszter Bogi, Kristina Csatlosova and Michal Dubovicky
An animal model of human behavior represents a complex of cognitive and/or emotional processess, which are translated from animals to humans. A behavioral test is developed primarily and specifically to verify and support a theory of cognition or emotion; it can also be used to verify a theory of a psychopathology, but it is not developed for a particular type of psychopathology. The paper reviews tests commonly used in novel drug discovery research. Focus is especially on tests which can evaluate anxiety-like (open-field test, novelty suppressed feeding, elevated plus maze, light/dark box, stressinduced hyperthermia) and depression-like behaviors (forced swim test, tail suspension test, sucrose preference test) as they represent an important methodological tool in pre-clinical as well as in behavioral toxicology studies.