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Assessment of the contribution of calcium and vitamin D in the diet of the elderly

malnutrition in the older adult: A quality improvement project using a standardised nutritional tool. J. Community Health Nurs. 2015;32:1-11. 9. Cierniak-Piotrowska M, Marciniak G, Stańczak J. Statystyka zgonów i umieralności z powodu chorób układu krążenia. Główny Urząd Statystyczny; 2016. [,22,1.html.] 10. Weaver CM, Alexander DD, Boushey CJ, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: an updated meta-analysis from the National

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Benefits of Motivational Interviewing Application for Patients and Healthcare Professionals

and the provision of practical tools encourage family physicians to prescribe physical activity as medicine? A pre-post study. BMJ Open. 2015;5(7). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-00792. 21. Rouleau CR, King-Shier KM, Tomfohr-Madsen LM, et al. The evaluation of a brief motivational intervention to promote intention to participate in cardiac rehabilitation: A randomized controlled trial. Patient Edu Couns. 2018;101(11);1914-23. 22. Nightingale B, Gopalan P, Azzam P, et al. Teaching brief motivational interventions for diabetes

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Health Education as an Important Tool in the Healthcare System


Health education is the main, and at the same time, integral part of complementary health promotion. The main assumption underlying the essence of health education is an assertion that the health of individuals and, consequently, of communities they belong to is significantly conditioned by the behaviour of inter-subject variability, which can be pro-healthily shaped by the educational impact. Thanks to transferred knowledge, shaping attitudes and the acquisition of certain skills, patients receive help in coping with health problems which improves their well-being, satisfaction, and the process of recovery. The education of a patient has advantages either in the clinical or social field, hence, it is perceived as an inseparable part of a high-quality healthcare. The importance of health education has been also recognized as one of the main factors that determine the long-term health policy, which indirectly may be reflected in the reduction of costs in the healthcare. In the recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on preventive and educational aspects of the healthcare. Family medicine, as the source of the initiation of shaping health-oriented attitudes, has a prominent place in the system organized in such a way. In patients' opinion, medical staff is the best and most reliable source of knowledge on health. Such expectations increase the importance of primary care physicians in preventing diseases and shaping health-oriented attitudes in a given society. The main task of a modern health education is primarily to support the creation of conditions for change, the growth competence of individuals and groups in the sphere of independent action for health at different levels of the organization of social life.

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Do medical students have a positive outlook on the world?

, et al. A Longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods. Education for Health. 2013;26(1). doi: 10.4103/1357-6283.112800. 11. O’Rourke M, Hammond S, O’Flynn S, Boylan G. The medical student stress profile: a tool for stress audit in medical training. Med Edu. 2010;44:1027-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03734.x. 12. Szczepańska J, Klin Z, Jaroszewska A, Ciesielski R. Zaburzenia nastroju w

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Preventive examinations participation and satisfaction of women in peri- and postmenopausal age

Community Medicine. University of New South Wales for BreastScreen, Aotearoa; 2012. 23. Autier P, Koechlin A, Smans M, et al. Mammography screening and breast cancer mortality in Sweden. JNCI – JNATL.2012;18;104(Suppl. 14):1080-93. 24. Scarinci IC, Garcia FAR, Kobetz E, et al. Cervical Cancer Prevention: New Tools and Old Barriers. Cancer. 2010;11 (Suppl. 11):2531-42. 25. Peres RS, dos Santos MA. Breast cancer, poverty and mental health: emotional response to the disease in women from popular classes. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2007,15. On

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Burnout among students of medical universities in Poland

Environ Res Public Health; 14. Epub ahead of print 25 May 2017. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14060560. 8. Santen SA, Holt DB, Kemp JD, et al. Burnout in medical students: examining the prevalence and associated factors. South Med J. 2010;103:758-63. 9. Kristensen TS, Borritz M, Villadsen E, et al. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work Stress. 2005;19:192-207. 10. Campos JADB, Carlotto MS, Marôco J. Copenhagen Burnout Inventory - student version: adaptation and transcultural validation for

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Who needs patient satisfaction surveys? Perspectives of Polish doctors, nurses, and patients


Introduction. Patient satisfaction surveys are still popular tools for obtaining feedback on the quality of health care. Nonetheless, there is a paucity of data to indicate whether health care providers even want patients to assess the quality of care delivered. Neither it is certain whether patients are interested in participating in such surveys.

Aim. To present and compare the perspectives of doctors, nurses, and patients on the validity of health care customer satisfaction surveys.

Material and methods. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The questionnaires were administered to doctors, nurses and patients in three hospitals of different sizes (small, medium, and large), all in the north-east of Poland. Each sample group was given 200 questionnaires; responses were received from 95 doctors (47.5%), 190 nurses (95%), and 182 patients (91%), and included in the final analyses.

Results. Most respondents (doctors - 64.2%; nurses - 61.6%; patients - 87.4%) answered ‘Yes’ to the question ‘Do you think that patients should evaluate the quality of health care?’ Analysis of data allowed to identify the following main reasons why patients should evaluate the quality of health care: 1. to enhance the quality of care; 2. to recognise patients as evaluators; 3. to motivate providers to work more efficiently; and 4. to emphasise the impact of evaluation on a core value, i.e. health. Doctors and nurses outlined reasons why they did not advocate conducting patient satisfaction surveys: satisfaction surveys are redundant; negative evaluations; unwillingness to be evaluated by patients; satisfaction surveys hamper effective work with patients; surveys are not objective; survey results are not communicated to providers.

Conclusions. Patient satisfaction surveys are desirable tools for evaluating the quality of health care delivery despite the fact that they frequently raise concerns amongst providers and patients. There is, therefore, a definite need for providers to experience the benefits of measuring patient satisfaction. Another important practical implication is that patients need to be convinced that their opinions do matter and contribute to improving the quality of services.

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Chromosomal abnormalities in a decade of prenatal testing at the Department of Obstetrics and Pathology of Pregnancy Medical University of Lublin


Introduction. Chromosomal abnormalities, one of the leading causes of pregnancy complications, attract attention of both researchers and clinicians. They use two approaches to identify chromosomal abnormalities, namely screening and diagnostic tests. Ultrasonography is a very reliable screening and diagnostic tool, but the only way to determine if there are any chromosomal defects in the fetus, is performing one of invasive diagnostics tests chorionic villus sampling (CVS), cordocentesis or amniocentesis. Unfortunately, these invasive diagnostic procedures carry a potentially high risk of complications. Using amniocentesis means a procedure-related miscarriage risk at a rate of about 0.5-1%.

Aim. The aim of this paper was to present our own experience, results in performing amniocentesis and a review of the literature.

Material and methods. During a 10-year period 237 mid-trimester, transabdominal amniocenteses were performed.

Results. The follow-up revealed one spontaneous abortion within seven days after the procedure. Premature delivery occurred in fourteen cases (two of them with chromosomal abnormalities). No neonatal deaths related to amniocentesis were noticed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 33 patients.

Conclusions. In the group with chromosomal abnormalities the main indications to perform amniocentesis were: improper ultrasound scan and the first trimester biochemical, noninvasive screening tests. This is a proof that modern, non-invasive procedures like the first-trimester ultrasound scan and biochemical tests should be made available to every pregnant woman and not only to mothers’ aged >35 years or those with a poor obstetrics history.

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The evaluation of health-related behaviours between the physically active and non-active women


Introduction. In the face of the more and more general threat with civilization diseases the promotion of healthy lifestyle should be one of main activities of educational and medical institutions. Aim. The aim of the work was comparison of chosen elements of healthy lifestyle between the young physically active women and non-sports ones. Material and methods. The survey was carried out on 156 women aged 18-35 years, divided into two groups. Persons physically active were classified into Group 1 (n=72), whereas into Group 2 - non-active ones (n=84). The investigative tool was the Inventory of Health-Related Behaviours by Juczyński (where health-related behaviours were rated in four categories: proper nutrition habits, prophylaxis behaviours, and positive attitude and health practices). Differences between the data were qualified with the t-student test for independent groups; level p≤0.05 was accepted as of minimum significance. Results. The results show that physically active persons pay greater attention to healthy lifestyle than non-sports people. The general indicator of health-related behaviours was noticeably higher in Group 1 (p=0.007). Greatest differences (p=0.008) were noted within the range of nutritional habits, and the least significant ones - in positive attitude (p=0.546). Conclusion. The positive influence of the physical activity on other aspects of the healthy lifestyle has been proven. It seems legitimate to promote physical activity among women of every age

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Meta-analysis of pain and stress in emergency department patients


Introduction. In Poland, among patients coming to hospital emergency departments (ED), one third require immediate surgical treatment. About one third are transferred to long-term intensive care. The remaining patients require a different type of care, e.g. consultation, healing wounds, observation in the emergency department. From there, they might either be referred to another hospital department or sent home after receiving outpatient help.

Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pain and stress in patients treated in the emergency department with particular emphasis on the factors that determine their level.

Material and methods. The study group consisted of 200 individuals treated in the emergency department of the Regional Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszów in 2013. The applied research method was a diagnostic survey that used a questionnaire as a research tool. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 20, whereas a statistically significant dependence was considered in those with level of significance p≤0.05.

Results. Most respondents reported pain and feelings of stress while staying in the ED. Women and the unemployed were significantly less likely to report pain. Factors like gender, age, education level, and the coexistence of chronic diseases significantly affected the degree of stress among patients in the ED.

Conclusion. Each patient treated at the emergency department should receive holistic care, so that the pain and stress of his injuries are reduced as soon as possible.

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