The aim of the article is to highlight the theoretical assumption that the relative competitive disadvantage between markets with different maximum sizes can be partially counteracted with strategic thinking and business-like operations. The research question presented in this article is whether there are any management tools available for clubs which they can use to improve their business competitiveness above and beyond the limitations of their maximum market size. According to the research hypothesis, there is such a tool available for clubs: the management and operation of a football club in a well-organized and business-like manner. The method of analysis is the so-called Grounded Theory (Glaser, & Strauss, 1967; Locke, 2001), which is an abstract analytical schema with a systematic data analysis process. The data collection incorporates desk research, comparative analysis, organizational review, and in-depth interviews. The results are presented according to the following dimensions: a) relevance of the research question; b) specification of groups of relevant management tools; c) the role of the national football association in the process of market development; d) the role of the owners in this process; and e) how the structure of the sector and its operating processes can guarantee the efficient utilization of all the material resources which have been plowed into the sector over the last four to five years. According to the conclusions, the creation of an operating system and club model that allows for the utilization of resources - maximized market revenues and governmental sources - in the most effective way is an unavoidable challenge. The formation of the sustainable operations of clubs is fundamentally influenced by club owners. An inspection of the interaction between club owners, head coaches, and players is a key task in the process of creating a new club model.
Technical development of human civilisation brings about a decrease of adaptation potential of an individual, which is directly linked to deficient motor activity. Only precise identification of factors leading to hypokinesia would make prophylactic and therapeutic actions possible. In this article, authors would like to introduce a new, original tool aiming at diagnosing limitations of motor activity in adults. They propose a synthetic diagnosis of hypokinesia in two domains: biological and psycho-social, which is based on the contemporary model of health.
Zbigniew Nowak, Michal Plewa, Malgorzata Skowron, Grażyna Osiadlo, Andrzej Markiewicz and Cezary Kucio
echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function after direct PCI. Kardiol Pol 2003; 59(11):397-401
Nelson M. E., Rejeski W. J., Blair S. N., Duncan P. W., Judge J. O., King A. C. et al. Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults. Recommendation From the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2007; 116:1094 - 1105.
Nowak Z., Plewa M., Skowron M., Markiewicz A., Kucio C., Osiadło G. Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire as an additional tool in clinical
Background: The analysis of demographic tendencies indicates a continuing process of extending life expectancy in numerous societies. Alongside the decline in fertility, the continuing process of extending life expectancy is the primary cause for the aging of societies. An increasing percentage of the elderly require defining the welfare among older people and its factors.
Aim: This article presents various views on successful aging and introduces the authorial Successful Aging Index model, which was the basis for a questionnaire diagnosing the quality of aging. The author’s intention was to create a diagnostic tool for said process.
Conclusions: Presented tool according to the author can be very useful for diagnosing the course of successful aging. However, this requires additional empirical testing.
Sport, as a child of modernity, is intertwined with typically modern elements, such as the search for universality, competition, and the fascination for measurement. As modernity is essentially defined, in legal and moral terms, as a search for universally grounded moral principles or basic human rights, modern sports are widely seen as a means to promote typically modern values such as dignity. This paper conceives of the term "dignity" in light of the capabilities approach upheld by Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen. According to these authors, dignity is conferred according to certain human basic capabilities that we all are entitled to. This is the reason why this article explores how sport can be a tool for enhancing and exercising such human capabilities. In so doing, I shall argue that the Sport for All ideal provides us with a normative proposal to achieve such a task since it embodies the basic spirit and ethical goals of our modern society. Moreover, connecting the promotion of dignity to the capabilities approach will allow us not just to use sport as a means for development, but also to provide us with specific criteria to evaluate the impact of sport in the wider society regarding the promotion of people‘s dignity.
Anna Akbaş, Wojciech Marszałek, Anna Kamieniarz, Jacek Polechoński, Kajetan J. Słomka and Grzegorz Juras
of a practice/game situation in a laboratory environment; (2) use a realistic scenario similar to what participants experience in their daily routine when compared to light and arrows stimulus.
Covaci et al., 2012
shoot free throws
survey, visual observation
Professional players obtained in the VE results similar to the real environment; simulator can be used for beginners as an interesting and stimulating tool to learn.
Craig et al., 2006
judge if ball ended up in the goal or not
Visual system is not attuned to such accelerated
Mario Amatria, Rubén Maneiro and M. Teresa Anguera
human eye could be to apply an empirical approach capable of uncovering the various structures and patterns that lie hidden within observable behaviors. T‐pattern analysis, which involves the detection of temporal patterns of behavior ( Magnusson, 2000 , 2016 ) has proven to be a useful tool for this purpose.
T‐pattern detection has enormous potential in applied research and interdisciplinary areas such as sport ( Hristovski et al., 2017 ), where researchers are interested not only in quantifying performance indicators, such as goals, passes, or shots, but also in
the lift to reach its maximal height at the conclusion of each repetition to ensure full extension of the ankle, knee and hip joint. The position of the toes and heels were based upon chalk drawings for each participant during all sessions and the distance was measured between the feet to ensure the identical starting stance each time. Ten minutes after completing each protocol, participants were asked to rate their session on a 0-10 RPE scale.
Data Acquisition and Preparation
For the purposes of the present study, a Gymaware (GymAware Power Tool, Kinetic
2003 21 5 403 410
Warren GL, Lowe DA, Armstrong RB. Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Med 1999; 27(1): 43-59 10.2165/00007256-199927010-00004 Warren GL Lowe DA Armstrong RB Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury Sports Med 1999 27 1 43 59