81.8% and the specificity is 98.6%. When the IgM antibody titer in the acute phase changes, the sensitivity of real-time quantitative PCR is 91.7%. Thus, real-time quantitative PCR can be used as a diagnostic tool for MP infection [ 16 ]. Other studies considered specimen collection time to have an impact on real-time quantitative PCR results. As the disease worsens, the sensitivity of PCR detected by real-time quantitative PCR also decreases [ 17 ].
3.1.3 LAMP technology
LAMP is a new technology developed in recent years. It has a high sensitivity and
Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.
Recently, a new type of CD8+ T-cell subset, namely, the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5 (CXCR5+) cluster of differentiation (CD8+) T-cell subset (also called the follicular cytotoxic T-cell (TFC) subgroup), has been discovered around B-cell follicles. The discovery has aroused widespread interest. However, the processes and mechanisms of TFCs taking part in the immune response of the germinal center and their specific roles must still be clearly identified. This article reviews domestic and foreign studies on factors regulating the phenotype, physiological functions, maturity, and differentiation of TFCs and roles and clinical significance of these cells in HIV infection. This review has shown good application prospects for TFCs. The author believes that further studies on TFCs can provide another tool for cytotherapy to control or cure chronic viral infections or tumors.
Jiang Xiao, Yan-mei Li, Ying-xiu Huang, Wen Zhang, Wen-jing Su, Wei Zhang, Ning Han, Di Yang, Xin Li, Gui-ju Gao and Hong-xin Zhao
Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of HIV drug-genotypic resistance among patients taking first-line ARV regimens using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, and guide to design optimal ARV regimens for these patients.
Methods HIV reverse transcriptase-encoded gene was amplified with RT-PCR and amplified PCR products were aligned and comparatively analyzed with HIV resistance database to find drug-resistance mutations.
Results Twenty-eight PCR products were amplified and sequenced successfully in 30 serum samples of recruited HIV-infected patients with virologic failure. The resistance rate was 96%, mutations in NRT region were found in 26 patients (93%), while mutations in NNRT region were found in 27 patients (96%). M184V was the most common mutation (86%), K65R was selected in 14% of recruited individuals and TAMs occurred in 50% of patients, which resulted in resistance to NRTIs. Y181C and V179D were the most common mutations in NNRTIs and prevalence was 43% (12/28) and 36% (10/28), respectively, which resulted in cross-resistance to NNRTIs due to low-genetic barrier.
Conclusions Virologic failure may occur in long-term administration of first-line ARV regimens, and drugresistance mutations can be found in these patients, which resulted in resistance to first-line ARV regimens. We emphasized that HIV viral load assay and resistance assay were important tools to guide healthcare workers to design an optimal second-line ARV regimens for HAART-experienced individuals with virologic failure.
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