81.8% and the specificity is 98.6%. When the IgM antibody titer in the acute phase changes, the sensitivity of real-time quantitative PCR is 91.7%. Thus, real-time quantitative PCR can be used as a diagnostic tool for MP infection [ 16 ]. Other studies considered specimen collection time to have an impact on real-time quantitative PCR results. As the disease worsens, the sensitivity of PCR detected by real-time quantitative PCR also decreases [ 17 ].
3.1.3 LAMP technology
LAMP is a new technology developed in recent years. It has a high sensitivity and
Use of organic soil amendments is a traditional agricultural practice for improving physical and chemical soil properties, soil structure, temperature and humidity conditions as well as nutrients content which are needful for plants growth. Application of organic materials to soil can cause a change in soil microflora and microfauna including soil nematodes. Nematodes, are the most ample and varied group of soil fauna. They are ever-present habitants of all soil types with high population densities. The changes in soil nematodofauna can results in an increase in the number of beneficial nematodes such as bacterial or fungal feeders and decrease and/or suppression in the occurrence of economically important plant parasitic nematodes. A variety of organic amendments, such as animal and green manure, undecomposed (raw) or decomposed materials (compost) are used for this purpose. Generally, plant parasitic nematodes have been controlled mainly by chemical soil fumigants and nematicides, agricultural practices or resistant cultivars. However, organic amendments can provide an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of chemical nematicides, which are often expensive, of limited availability in many developing countries and above all environmentally hazardous.
M. Kolesárová, R. Herich, M. Levkut, J. Čurlík and M. Levkut
. Helminthologia, 3: 121–125. DOI: 10.2478/s11687-008-0023-2 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11687-008-0023-2
 Gonzalez, L. M., Montero, E., Puente, S., Lopezvelez, R., Hernandez, M., Sciutto, E., Harrison, L. J. S., Parkhouse, R. M. E., Garate, T. (2002): PCR tools for the differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis from different geographical regions. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 1: 243–249. DOI: 10.1016/S0732-8893(01)00356-X http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0732-8893(01)00356-X
 Greer, C
Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.
Recently, a new type of CD8+ T-cell subset, namely, the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5 (CXCR5+) cluster of differentiation (CD8+) T-cell subset (also called the follicular cytotoxic T-cell (TFC) subgroup), has been discovered around B-cell follicles. The discovery has aroused widespread interest. However, the processes and mechanisms of TFCs taking part in the immune response of the germinal center and their specific roles must still be clearly identified. This article reviews domestic and foreign studies on factors regulating the phenotype, physiological functions, maturity, and differentiation of TFCs and roles and clinical significance of these cells in HIV infection. This review has shown good application prospects for TFCs. The author believes that further studies on TFCs can provide another tool for cytotherapy to control or cure chronic viral infections or tumors.
F. Lefebvre, B. Georgiev, R. Bray and D. Littlewood
The Cestode Life Cycle Database (CLCdb) project was initiated in 2005 with the objective to develop a comprehensive and centralised resource to store, retrieve and analyse key information concerning tapeworm life cycles; e.g. morphogenesis, intermediate host identities, transmission patterns, etc. It constitutes the first electronic database to deal with complex life cycle information for any helminth taxon. Here we critically evaluate our experience after exhaustively entering data for our model group, the cyclophyllidean family Hymenolepididae. After providing basic statistics (530 consulted references; ∼ 230 ‘known’ life cycle), we identify future needs in turning the CLCdb into an open access monograph covering all cestode groups. We review the added benefits and potential utilities of the database for cestodologists and other users, including ecologists and veterinarians, and we call for specialist contributions. Since late 2007, a short version of the CLCdb has been available online, with basic functionalities and tools (www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/projects/cestode-life-cycle/index.html).
S. Pen-Mouratov, C. Hu, E. Hindin and Y. Steinberger
The spatial and temporal dynamics and composition of a soil free-living nematode community were studied in order to determine the impact of slope orientation on the community on the xeric south- and the mesic north-facing sand-dune slopes.
A significant effect of sampling location on organic matter, total number of free-living nematodes, and trophic diversity was found. Although soil moisture had a significant effect on separate nematode trophic groups and on most of the applied ecological indices, no differences in soil moisture were observed between slopes. Organic matter was found to have a significant effect on the fungivore nematodes. The obtained results indicate that the south-facing slope is more favorable for the observed free-living nematodes than the other sampling sites. Twenty-four of the 77 nematode species that were found in the observed area showed dependence on dune slope orientation. The fungibacteria ratio, Simpson’s dominance index, and basal index were useful tools for determining slope differences.
Á. Daragó, M. Szabó, K. Hrács, A. Takács and P. Nagy
The application of Trichoderma spp. for the suppression of plant-parasitic nematode populations is a promising tool in biological control. Sixteen strains of six Trichoderma species (T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. rossicum, T. tomentosum, T. virens and T. asperellum) were tested in vitro in order to identify the most appropriate strains to control the dagger nematode Xiphinema index. Mortality assays revealed that the strains of the widely investigated T. harzianum species have caused significant reduction of X. index populations, although T. harzianum strains were not the most efficient among all the tested fungi. Certain T. virens and T. atroviride strains and T. rossicum have triggered faster and higher mortality. Generally, our data indicate that Trichoderma species have innate ability to decrease X. index population. Furthermore, as we had difficulties with maintaining X. index in vitro, we successfully used a newly developed method to keep X. index specimens viable during the experiments.
F. A. da Silva, C. Monteiro da Silva, F. B. de Almeida and R. Rodrigues-Silva
This study was carried out to estimate the minimal number of eggs present in adult E. coelomaticum uterus. Samples were collected during post-mortem inspection and were submitted to light microscopy (bright field). The length, width, the total area of the parasite, uterus, and eggs were measured. The ImageJ software was used to calculate the area of the different parameters analyzed in this study. It was possible to observe that the uterus corresponds on average to 51.9 % of the total area of the parasite (ranging from 45 to 64 %). The number of eggs present in the uterus of parasites ranged from 5,946 to 15,813. To estimate the number of eggs three scenarios were considered, where the first taken into account the number of whole eggs observed in the image. In the second way to estimate the number of eggs, all the structures were considered (whole eggs and fractions that could be delimited) and compared with manual counting. Finally, in the last scenario, was considered an occupancy rate of 100 % of the uterine area per eggs, since there are overlapping eggs and these cannot be correctly delimited and accounted for. This study describes an important tool for quantifying eggs in a nondestructive manner and aggregate information until then is not explained by other works.