Asaduzzaman Khan, Riaz Uddin, Naznin Alam, Shuhana Sultana, Mahbub-Ul Alam and Rushdia Ahmed
health problems such as depressive- and anxiety-disorders peaks during the age of 10–29 years ( Whiteford et al., 2013 ). Given the early onset, it is crucial to start assessing and monitoring mental health problems of individuals when they are young.
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale is a screening tool to assess the level of distress associated with non-specific psychological symptoms at the population level ( Kessler et al., 2002 ). Two versions of the scale – K6, a 6-item scale embedded in a 10-item scale (K10) – were developed from a pool of 612 items
Of the 9 controlled clinical trials included in our review, 7 were randomized controlled clinical trials and 2 were non-randomized controlled trials. The 2 non-randomized controlled trials were assumed to have a relatively high risk of bias. The risk of bias for the 7 randomized controlled trials was assessed with the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias (Julian P T Higgins et al., 2011 ). The results are presented in figures 2 and 3.Studies using mixed guarana interventions were thought to have a relatively high risk of bias, even if the trial was
Ewelina Drzał-Fiałkiewcz, Agata Makarewicz, Mateusz Walczak, Aleksandra Walczak, Małgorzta Futyma-Jędrzejewska, Gustaw Kozak, Piotr Frończuk and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
and In-tentional Self-Injury Psychological Assessment, American Psychological Association, 2006, Vol. 18, No. 3, 303–312
36. Nock M. K., Holmberg E. B., Photos V. I., Michel B. D. Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview: Development, Reliability, and Validity in an Adolescent Sample Psychological Assessment, American Psychological Association, 2007, Vol. 19, No. 3, 309 –317
37. Juzwin K. An Assessment Tool for Self-Injury: The Self-Injury Self-Report Inventory (SISRI). W J. Levitt, R. Sansone, L. Cohn (red.) Self-Harm Behavior and Eating
Katja Koelkebeck, Maja Pantovic Stefanovic, Dorota Frydecka, Claudia Palumbo, Olivier Andlauer, Florian Riese, Nikolina Jovanovic and Mariana Pinto da Costa
and research days ( Collins, Meyer & Dawson, 1999 ). These initiatives could be complemented by newer e-leaning tools, such as the one presented by Himelhoch and colleagues (2015) , who implemented a formal training course for systematic reviews and meta-analyses online. Moreover, recent initiatives of the EPA use Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for the training of specific skills independent of localisation. This might also overcome financial or institutional barriers that prevent ECPs to participate, specifically if no institutional support or funding is
to suffer more from depression compared to those living in semi-urban areas ( Babatsikou et al., 2018 ).
The difference in prevalence of depression may be attributed to several reasons such as the place of living, that is, urban or rural, the specific characteristics of each population, the male and female ratio, the educational and economic level of the participants, the size of the sample as well as the diagnostic tool used to assess depression.
The prevalence of depression depends on many factors, demographic or health related. Female gender is associated
The Affiliative Imprinting Phenomenon in the Modern Study of Animal Cognition
illusions: An interesting tool to investigate developmental dyslexia and autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10 , 175.
Gottlieb, G. (1979). Development of species identification in ducklings: V. Perceptual differentiation in the embryo. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 93 , 831–854.
Heaton, M. B. (1972). Prenatal auditory discrimination in the wood duck ( Aix sponsa ). Animal Behavior, 20 , 421–424.
Hetch, H., & Proffitt, D. R. (1995). The price of expertise: Effects of experience on the water level task
Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno
current symptom profile was collected on several domains. We used the Italian versions of Symptom Check List-SCL-90-R ( Prunas et al., 2012 ) in order to get a broad picture of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology; the Beck Depression Inventory-BDI-II ( Sica, Ghisi, & Lange, 2007 ) for measuring the severity of depression; the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 with subscales, a self-report tool, measuring constructs shown to be clinically relevant in individuals with EDs symptoms (i.e., drive for thinness-DT, bulimia-B and body dissatisfaction-BD) ( Giannini
Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Olanrewaju Isaac Owoeye, Almu Bello and Linda Ekele Iyadi
, only three schools were used for the study. These selected schools were: Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU); School of Nursing (SON), and the Community Health Officers’ Training Programme (CHOTP) school. UDU runs a six-year academic program in Medicine (all the medical students in UDUTHS campus are either in their 4 th , 5 th , or 6 th year, while those in their 1 st to 3 rd year are situated in another campus). SON runs a three-year program in General Nursing. CHOTP runs a two-year program in Community Health.
The study tool used in this present
methods indicate the tools and the ways the hypothesis was tested. Results describe the data collection and analysis that lead to a confirmation or rejection of the hypothesis. Conclusions must indicate the confirmation or refusal of the hypothesis, validate the outcome, may explore the practical or theoretical relevance of the findings and may provide specific recommendations for necessary future research.
The importance of the abstract must not be underestimated as most researchers will decide if they are going to acquire and read the full paper based on the
tool to use in clinical, research, and primary care settings to deal with different aspects of parenting in Bangladesh. Certainly, it can bolster the mental health care in Bangladesh, especially child psychiatric set up. Regular use of PSDQ Bangla in necessary clinical setting, especially to deal with child psychiatric disorders and research setting, would significantly benefit the clients. Larger studies involving more heterogeneous parents may help to provide a more complete picture of current the state, desired style, and improved ways of parenting to improve the