Katarzyna Osmańska, Maria Pilarska-Deltow and Olga Haus
. Cytogenetics and genetics of human cancer: methods and accomplishments. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2010;203:102–126. 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2010.10.004 21156223
Sandberg AA Meloni-Ehrig AM Cytogenetics and genetics of human cancer: methods and accomplishments Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2010 203 102 126
 Costa JL, Meijer G, Ylstra B, Caldas C. Array comparative genomic hybridization copy number profiling: a new tool for translational research in solid malignancies. Semin Radiat Oncol 2008;18:98–104. 10.1016/j.semradonc.2007.10.005 18314064
diagnostic tools. Iran J Med Sci 2014;39:158-70. 24753638
Mohseni S Shojaiefard A Khorgami Z Alinejad S Ghorbani A Ghafouri A Peripheral lymphadenopathy: approach and diagnostic tools Iran J Med Sci 2014 39 158 70
 Pawelec K, Wiechecka J, Boruczkowski D. Diagnostyka różnicowa powiększonych węzłów chłonnych u dzieci. Nowa Pediatr 2012;3:55-60.
Pawelec K Wiechecka J Boruczkowski D Diagnostyka różnicowa powiększonych węzłów chłonnych u dzieci Nowa Pediatr 2012 3 55 60
 Bazemore AW, Smucker DR. Lymphadenopathy and
-invasive and sensitive tool for assessing brain plasticity may be very useful in predicting the proper timing for subsequent surgeries as well as in preoperative planning of the extent of tumor resection.We imagine that NIRS may be a useful tool in monitoring of low grade tumours for plasticity. The aim of this paper is to highlight the usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in evaluating the possibility of functional preservation for surgeries in eloquent areas.
The patient was a right handed 46-year-old woman, who had a history of multiple
regions and moving toward higher brain functions such as cognitive functions in the brain. fMRI is one of the most revolutionary tools for neuroscience and has become essential for the investigation of higher order cognitive functions such as brain interconnectivity and plasticity. Thus, fMRI allows for visualization of a network of brain regions which are active when we think.
So, for instance, Altenmueller demonstrated that cortical activation during music processing reflects the auditory “learning biography,” the personal experiences accumulated over time
Pablo Ajler, Alvaro Campero, Federico Landriel, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Santiago Hem and Antonio Carrizo
-secreting adenomas is an infrequent disorder but represents a large proportion of the pituitary tumors requiring surgery. It is still a challenge for experienced neurosurgeons because, despite newer diagnostic and therapeutic tools, many patients continue to have symptoms and biochemical abnormalities postoperatively [ 3 ]. The transnasal approach allows tumor resection in most microadenomas; however, larger adenomas represent a major challenge. Complete surgical resection is possible with this technique only where the lesion is located within the internal walls of the cavernous
Iwona Strzelecka, Eliza Michalska, Katarzyna Zych-Krekora and Maria Respondek-Liberska
Introduction: Echocardiography of the fetal heart is an ultrasound examination that allows the evaluation of the anatomical structure and cardiovascular system usually performed in first half of pregnancy. Material and methods: This work presents the data of 107 fetuses with normal heart anatomy (NHA) and normal heart study (NHS) and their neonatal follow-up. In this group (in an addition to routine prenatal work-up) has been performed also a echocardiography examination in the third trimester of pregnancy, after 37th week of gestation: 61% of pregnant women were referred to the prenatal cardiology center due to the presence of high-risk pregnancies and 39% were low-risk pregnancies. Results: In two cases episodes of fetal arrhythmias were present during obstetrical examinations. After birth in the study group of 107 fetuses, 72% of newborns left the hospital during the 4 days and 28% newborns stayed in the hospital for longer time. In 16 cases their stay was extended due to maternal reasons and in 14 for newborns reasons. Conclusions: 1) In the neonate group, after prenatal cardiac evaluation > the 37th week of gestation such as “ normal fetal heart anatomy & normal heart study”, all newborns in our center were born in good general condition. 2) Late prenatal echocardiography in 3rd trimester of pregnancy maybe considered as additional tool to prove fetal well being, specially in high risk pregnancies.
Alexis C. Gimovsky, Brianne Whitney, Dennis Wood and Stuart Weiner
BACKGROUND: The Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) is a Doppler derived myocardial function tool and can be used to evaluate
systolic and diastolic function in fetuses. The objectives of this study were to investigate the MPI during labor and compare it to values
in non-laboring women.
METHODOLOGY: 40 women with uncomplicated, term, singleton pregnancies were recruited to this prospective observational study at
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Controls were a retrospective cohort of women > 34 weeks who underwent third trimester fetal
echocardiography. Fetal left and right sided isovolumic contraction time, isovolumic relaxation time and ejection time were recorded
before, during and after contractions. Right and left sided MPI was then calculated.
RESULTS: Laboring patients and non-laboring patients were comparable for age, race, gravidity and parity. During labor the average left
MPI was 0.63 ± 0.17 and the average right MPI was 0.62 ± 0.20. The coefficient of correlation between MPI and cervical dilation was
0.15 for left MPI Index and 0.14 for right MPI. When comparing non-laboring to laboring women, the average left MPI for non-laboring
women was 0.34 ± 0.04, p = <0.001.
CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial Performance Index is a non-invasive, easily attainable measure of cardiac function that can be obtained
during labor and does not change with cervical dilation. MPI is significantly different between laboring and non-laboring women.
The fetal MPI may help define fetal status in labor.
Oliver Graupner, Christian Enzensberger, Larissa Wieg, Aline Wolter, Can Yerebakan, Markus Khalil and Roland Axt-Fliedner
Introduction: The long-term outcome of patients with HLHS (hypoplastic left heart syndrome) is mainly determined by right ventricular function. Our study examines, whether there are differences in segmental right ventricular myocardial displacement and tissue velocities of fetuses with HLHS compared to healthy fetuses during gestation. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted including 20 fetuses with HLHS and 20 gestational age matched controls. c-TDI (colour tissue Doppler imaging) derived systolic and diastolic velocities as well as myocardial displacement were assessed in three different locations of the right ventricle (RV). A ROI (region of interest) was placed in the basal, middle and apical part of the myocardium. Possible changes of c-TDI indices in the course of pregnancy and between the three different segments were investigated in both groups. Results: HLHS fetuses showed significantly lower e' velocities measured in the basal and middle part of the RV compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). Basal displacement showed significantly lower values in HLHS fetuses compared to controls. In control fetuses but not in HLHS fetuses there was a significant increase of basal diastolic velocities and displacement in the course of pregnancy. According to myocardial velocities and displacement values there was a significant decrease from the base of the fetal heart to the apex pointed in both groups. Conclusions: An altered right ventricular myocardial function in HLHS fetuses within different myocardial segments could be demonstrated. An apicobasal gradient with higher velocity and displacement values in the basal part of RV myocardium could be found in both groups. The technique may be of value in the prenatal assessment of myocardial function, however its role as a monitoring tool and outcome predictor needs to be defined.
Leukemia 2014 28 7 1472 7
 Sorror ML, Maris MB, Storb R, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-specific comorbidity index: a new tool for risk assessment before allogeneic HCT. Blood 2005;106(8):2912–9. 10.1182/blood-2005-05-2004
Sorror ML Maris MB Storb R Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-specific comorbidity index: a new tool for risk assessment before allogeneic HCT Blood 2005 106 8 2912 9