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Comment on “State of the art in magnetic resonance imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma”: the role of DWI

extracted by DWI to characterize HCC, data not assessed by authors. 001 DWI has been applied to liver imaging as an excellent tool for detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. The assessment of DW images can be done qualitatively and quantitatively, through the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. Le Bihan et al . as a first described the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). IVIM data can be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. IVIM data enable improved detection and characterization of HCC. 2 Also, traditionally DWI approach to analyze data is

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Multigene expression signatures in early hormone receptor positive HER 2 negative breast cancer

used (low/intermediate risk: 82.1% for Oncotype DX, 72.0% for IHC4, 65.6% for Prosigna and 61.4% for MammaPrint). 51 No patient outcome data were available at the time of analysis and therefore we cannot draw any conclusion about the comparison on clinical utility of these tests. The performance of multiple gene signatures in one patient is not feasible in clinical practice. Based on this, multigene expression signatures are endorsed as validated decision making tool in early BC by different international guidelines. However, there are differences regarding

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Inquiry and computer program Onko-Online: 25 years of clinical registry for breast cancer at the University Medical Centre Maribor

nodes in the axilla. We also added some typical signs of a metastatic disease (bone pain, dyspnoea, persistent cough, abdominal pain, weigh loss), although primary metastatic cancer is relatively rare. According to our registry, in Slovenia 7.1% of patients were presented with primary metastatic disease in 2015. 1 The data in the literature for developed countries are similar, approximately 5-10% of all breast cancer patients were presented with distant metastases at initial diagnosis. 18 Clinical breast examination is not a reliable diagnostic tool 19 , but it

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Radiological findings of porcine liver after electrochemotherapy with bleomycin

percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) Radiol Oncol 2015 49 234 41 10.1515/raon-2015-0031 30 Marčan M, Pavliha D, Kos B, Forjanič T, Miklavčič D. Web-based tool for visualization of electric field distribution in deep-seated body structures and planning of electroporation-based treatments. Biomed Eng Online 2015; 14 Suppl 3: S4. doi: 10.1186/1475-925X-14-S3-S4 Marčan M Pavliha D Kos B Forjanič T Miklavčič D Web-based tool for visualization of electric field distribution in deep-seated body structures and planning of

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A comparison of the quality assurance of four dosimetric tools for intensity modulated radiation therapy


Background. This study was designed to compare the quality assurance (QA) results of four dosimetric tools used for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to suggest universal criteria for the passing rate in QA, irrespective of the dosimetric tool used.

Materials and methods. Thirty fields of IMRT plans from five patients were selected, followed by irradiation onto radiochromic film, a diode array (Mapcheck), an ion chamber array (MatriXX) and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for patient-specific QA. The measured doses from the four dosimetric tools were compared with the dose calculated by the treatment planning system. The passing rates of the four dosimetric tools were calculated using the gamma index method, using as criteria a dose difference of 3% and a distance-to-agreement of 3 mm.

Results. The QA results based on Mapcheck, MatriXX and EPID showed good agreement, with average passing rates of 99.61%, 99.04% and 99.29%, respectively. However, the average passing rate based on film measurement was significantly lower, 95.88%. The average uncertainty (1 standard deviation) of passing rates for 6 intensity modulated fields was around 0.31 for film measurement, larger than those of the other three dosimetric tools.

Conclusions. QA results and consistencies depend on the choice of dosimetric tool. Universal passing rates should depend on the normalization or inter-comparisons of dosimetric tools if more than one dosimetric tool is used for patient specific QA.

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The outcome-based iCAN! / theyCAN! feedback paradigm differentiates strong and weak learning outcomes, learner diversity, and the learning outcomes of each learner: A shift to metacognitive assessment

graduation, the graduates know what has been finally gained and what remains uncovered. In order to measure the learning outcomes of each specific course of medical studies, a series of tools, iCAN!-Paediatrics [ 5 ], iCAN!-Pain [ 6 ], iCAN!-Normal-child [ 7 ], was developed. Oncology is not a distinct core curriculum subject in any of the seven medical schools in Greece. Extracurricular seminars and a dense program of focused courses and national conferences complement undergraduate and postgraduate oncology training [ 8 - 9 ]. The “Hellenic Medical Student

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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of vertebral column – an additional tool for evaluation of aggressiveness of vertebral haemangioma like lesion


Background. Most vertebral haemangioma are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. Sometimes the symptomatic lesions present with radiological signs of aggressiveness and their appearance resemble other aggressive lesions (e.g. solitary plasmacytoma).

Case report. We present a patient with large symptomatic aggressive haemangioma like lesion in 12th thoracic vertebra in which a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to analyse fat content within the lesion. The lesion in affected vertebrae showed low fat content with 33% of fat fraction (%FF). The fat content in non-affected (1st lumbar) vertebra was as expected for patient’s age (68%). Based on MRS data, the lesion was characterized as an aggressive haemangioma. The diagnosis was confirmed with biopsy, performed during the treatment - percutaneous vertebroplasty.

Conclusions. The presented case shows that MRS can be used as an additional tool for evaluation of aggressiveness of vertebral haemangioma like lesions.

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Ultrasound elastography as an objective diagnostic measurement tool for lymphoedema of the treated breast in breast cancer patients following breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy

Background. Lymphoedema of the operated and irradiated breast is a common complication following early breast cancer treatment. There is no consensus on objective diagnostic criteria and standard measurement tools. This study investigates the use of ultrasound elastography as an objective quantitative measurement tool for the diagnosis of parenchymal breast oedema.

Patients and methods. The elasticity ratio of the subcutis, measured with ultrasound elastography, was compared with high-frequency ultrasound parameters and subjective symptoms in twenty patients, bilaterally, prior to and following breast conserving surgery and breast irradiation.

Results. Elasticity ratio of the subcutis of the operated breast following radiation therapy increased in 88.9% of patients, was significantly higher than prior to surgery, unlike the non operated breast and significantly higher than the non operated breast, unlike preoperative results. These results were significantly correlated with visibility of the echogenic line, measured with high-frequency ultrasound. Big preoperative bra cup size was a significant risk factor for the development of breast oedema.

Conclusions. Ultrasound elastography is an objective quantitative measurement tool for the diagnosis of parenchymal breast oedema, in combination with other objective diagnostic criteria. Further research with longer follow-up and more patients is necessary to confirm our findings.

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Evaluation of the prognostic benefit of identifying the probable primary site in cancer of unknown primary

30];13:36. Available from: [3] Brustugun OT, Helland Å. Rapid reduction in the incidence of cancer of unknown primary. A population-based study. Acta Oncol [Internet]. 2014 Jan [cited 2015 Sep 29];53(1):134-7. Available from: [4] Mnatsakanyan E, Tung W-C, Caine B, Smith- Gagen J. Cancer of unknown primary: time trends in incidence, United States. Cancer Causes Control [Internet]. 2014 Jun

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