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Prevalence of radiosensitive organ shielding in patients undergoing computed tomography examinations: an observational service audit in Ahvaz, Iran

the availabilities and usage of modern shielding tools (IBS) and CRS for patients undergoing CT exams in five hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and methods We conducted an observational cross-sectional study as an audit or service evaluation in five hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran including three teaching and two general hospitals, during August 2014 to September 2014. Ahvaz is a regional provincial capital in the south-west of Iran. Six radiology technologist students agreed to participate in this audit. After preliminary coordination and training, the students

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Instruments for Disease-Specific Quality-of-Life Measurement in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - A Systematic Review / Инструменты Для Оценки Специфического Качества Жизни Пациентов, Больных Сахарным Диабетом Типа 2

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a disease which carries a considerable social impact in Bulgaria and across the world because of its high prevalence. Research literature has recently included lots of studies investigating the effects of diabetes mellitus on the quality of life of diabetic patients and also many instruments to assess these effects. Quality of life is a concept that encompasses an individual‘s subjective perception of physical, emotional and social wellbeing, including both a cognitive component (satisfaction) and an emotional component (happiness). We review and analyse in the present article major determinants of disease-specific quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the tools used for assessment.

RESULTS: Fourteen instruments for measuring quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) met our search criteria. Their contents covered different quality-of-life domains or indicators - typical diabetes symptoms, general health and quality of life, personality traits, physical functioning, mental and social well-being, treatment and quality of life. Most of the disease-specific tools had been field tested and data about their reliability and validity have been reported. Few tools had been subjected to formal assessment of their adaptability to changes.

CONCLUSIONS: Of the instruments we assessed the most promising approaches for measuring the diabetes-specific quality of life are offered by ADDQoL, DСP and WBQ. Patients were involved in the development of these tools which have been shown by a number of studies to have good internal reliability, external and construct validity. Efforts are being continually made worldwide to develop a standard ensuring valid, reliable, easy to use tool for assessing quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in order to promote patients integration into society.

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The Evaluation of Saliva Oxidative and Antioxidative Markers’ Levels in Adolescents with Gingival Inflammation

Abstract

Periodontal disease is highly prevalent and affects 10%–15% of the world population. Salivary markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status represent promising tool for research of oral diseases. Given the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, the aim of this study was to determine the association between oxidative stress parameters and periodontal disease gingivitis in adolescents. The study included a consecutive sample of 80 male and female participants referred to the Institute of Dentistry, Kragujevac, Serbia, as a result of periodontal problems or for routine control, aged 18 to 21, with definitive dentition as an inclusion criterion. Patients were divided into three groups depending on their gingival inflammation status. The first group was control group (n=20) with no gingival inflammation, the second group was with mild gingival inflammation (n=19), the third group was with moderate gingival inflammation (n=21) and the fourth group was with severe gingival inflammation (n=20). Oxidative stress parameters were measured in unstimulated whole saliva samples (superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, index of lipid peroxidation, reduced gluthatione, catalase and superoxide dismutase). We have found increased levels of hydrogen peroxide and reduced glutathione in the saliva of patients with moderate levels of gingival inflammation, while the other markers were not significantly affected. In conclusion, oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis and the determination of oxidative and antioxidative levels could be a potent tool in controlling the development of gingivitis.

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MicroRNAs as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Heart Failure

Abstract

Heart failure still represents a real challenge both in everyday practice and research, due to the complex issues related to its pathogenesis and management. Humoral biomarkers have emerged in the last decades as useful tools in the diagnosis, risk stratification and guiding the treatment of heart failure. These molecules are related to different pathological and adaptive processes, like myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation and cardiac remodeling, their most widespread representatives being the natriuretic peptides (e.g. NT-proBNP). The role of altered gene expression and transcription as the basis of myocardial structural and functional changes in heart failure is largely recognized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which have a major role in post-transcriptional gene expression by interfering with messenger RNA molecules. Our short review summarizes the molecular biology of miRNAs and their possible role as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure. Furthermore, the therapeutical perspectives conferred by these molecules are also presented.

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Atrial Fibrillation – An Orchestra of Classic and Modern Risk Factors

Abstract

Over the past years, prevention and control of risk factors has begun to play an important role in the management of patients prone to develop atrial fibrillation (AF). A considerable number of risk factors that contribute to the creation of a predisposing substrate for AF has been identified over the years. Although certain AF risk factors such as age, gender, genetic predisposition, or race are unmodifiable, controlling modifiable risk factors may represent an invaluable tool in the management of AF patients. In the recent decades, numerous studies have evaluated the mechanisms linking different risk factors to AF, but the exact degree of atrial remodeling induced by each factor remains unknown. Elucidating these mechanisms is essential for initiating personalized therapies in patients prone to develop AF. The present review aims to provide an overview of the most relevant modifiable risk factors involved in AF occurrence, with a focus on the mechanisms by which these factors lead to AF initiation and perpetuation.

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Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Potential Drug-drug Interactions in Surgical Patients

Abstract

Background: Drug-drug interactions are defined as modifications of the drug action that result from the simultaneous administration of another individual drug or several drugs. Nowadays, potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are most frequently detected and analyzed using personal digital assistant software programs (online interaction checker tools).

Objective: To determine the risk factors for the emergence of all drug-drug interactions in surgical patients with particular emphasis on clinically significant interactions.

Patients and methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients treated at the Surgical Clinic of the Clinical Center Kragujevac. Three interaction checkers were used to reveal drug-drug interactions: Medscape, Epocrates and Micromedex.

Results: The study included total of 200 patients, aged 58.54±17.08 years. Average number of drug-drug interactions per patient was between 10.50±9.10 (Micromedex) and 18.75±17.14 (Epocrates). Number of prescribed drugs, antidepressive therapy, antiarrhythmic therapy, number of pharmacological/therapeutic subgroups (2nd level of ATC classification) prescribed, delirium or dementia, diabetes, heart failure, and number of physicians who prescribed drugs to single patient were identified as risk factors for drug-drug interactions while length of hospitalization in days and age of patient in years emerged as protective factors.

Conclusion: Drug-drug interactions are relatively common in surgical patients and predisposed by factors such as number of prescribed drugs or drug group per patient, number of physicians who prescribed drugs, antidepressive therapy, antiarrhythmic therapy, presence of delirium or dementia, diabetes and heart failure. On the other hand, prolonged hospitalization and higher age are factors that reduce the risk of interactions in surgical patients.

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Risk Factors and Characteristics of Falls Among Hospitalized Stroke Patients

; 8(12): 1173-80. 4. Nyström A, Hellström K. Fall risk six weeks from onset of stroke and the ability of the Prediction of Falls in Rehabilitation Settings Tool and motor function to predict falls. Clin Rehabil 2013; 27(5): 473-9. 5. Kim DY, Lim CG. Effects of Pedalo(®) training on balance and fall risk in stroke patients. J Phys Ther Sci 2017; 29(7): 1159-1162. 6. Persson CU, Kjellberg S, Lernfelt B, Westerlind E, Cruce M, Hansson PO. Risk of falling in a stroke unit after acute stroke: The Fall Study of Gothenburg (Falls-GOT). Clin Rehabil 2018

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The Complication Rates of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Deep Venous Thrombosis

® classification of hypovolaemic shock: A well-established teaching tool on the edge? Injury 2014;45 Suppl 3:S35-8. 6. Blokhin IO, Lentz SR. Mechanisms of thrombosis in obesity. Curr Opin Hematol. 2013;20(5):437-44. 7. European Medicines Agency. Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP). Note for guidance on the evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of medicinal products in patients with impaired renal function. London: EMA, 2004 [online]. Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_guideline/2009/09/WC500003123.pdf

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Formalin Fixation of Human Healthy Autopsied Tissues: The Influence of Type of Tissue, Temperature and Incubation Time on the Quality of Isolated DNA

, 8-12. 12. Douglas, M.P. & Rogers, S.O. (1998). DNA damage caused by common cytological fixatives. Mutat Res.401(1-2), 77-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(97)00314-X 13. Gouvegia, G.R., Ferreira, S.C., Siqueira, S.A.C., Pereira, J. (2016). Nucleic Acids Extraction from Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues. In: Larramendy ML and Soloneski S (Eds),Nucleic Acids-From Basic Aspects to Laboratory Tools. (pp27-36) IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/61581 14. Srinivasan, M., Sedmak, D., Jewell, S.(2002). Effect of fixatives and tissue

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The Benefits of Using New Tools for Behavioral Investigations in Animal Experimental Models

Abstract

The animal experimental models of emotional disorders attempt to reproduce features of human psychiatric disorders in laboratory animals by correlating the physiological and behavioral changes associated with specific emotional states, the etiology of disorders, and responses on drug treatments. Animal experimental models that accurately recapitulate clinical pathology are indispensable for understanding molecular mechanisms and advancing preclinical studies. Behavioral tests on animal models have been developed over time in two directions: to enable the acquisition of as many valid behavior data as possible, and constructing experimental models and procedures that represent a parallel with certain conditions in humans. In this review we discuss more information for the new tools in behavioral investigations in animal experimental models. Here we described evoked beam-walking (EBW) test as a new test for estimation of anxiety levels. The reliability of that test was confirmed in our studies by using nandrolone decanoate (ND) and testosterone enanthate (TE) in supraphysiological doses. Also, we defined a new approach to estimation of exploratory activity by using these tests and an improvement of detectability in standard evaluation of depressive state levels. Taking into account that behavioral investigation in animal models still has to remain indispensable in conducting of preclinical studies, we assume that new tools that can be applied in this field may improve the quality of research.

Open access