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An analysis of certainly and generally in Late-Modern English English history texts

Abstract

This paper analyses the adverbs certainly and generally as stancetaking markers. These adverbial devices are said to show authorial stance and to communicate the author’s commitment or detachment towards the information presented, and so they are classified as epistemic adverbs (Alonso-Almeida 2015). For this study, I have selected a corpus of history texts from the Modern English period (1700-1900), as compiled in The Corpus of History English Texts (Crespo and Moskowich 2015), on the basis of which the two evidential adverbs are examined using computer corpus tools, although manual inspection is also employed to assess the meaning of the items in context. The findings suggest that, in this type of scientific articles, the two adverbs are used with differing pragmatic functions, in the case of certainly it functions mostly as a booster and, in the specific case of generally, its use seems to primarily suggest a hedging purpose (Hyland 2005a).

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Prosodically-conditioned Syllable Structure in English

Syntax: The Relation between Sound and Structure . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Topintzi, Nina. 2010. Onsets: Suprasegmental and Prosodic Behaviour . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trnka, Bohumil. 1966. A Phonological Analysis of Present-day Standard English . Alabama: University of Alabama Press. Zydorowicz, Paulina, Orzechowska, Paula, Jankowski, Michał Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna, Wierzchoń, Piotr and Dawid Pietrala. 2016. Phonotactics and Morphonotactics of Polish and English: Description, Tools and Applications . Poznań: Wydawnictwo

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Which phonetic features should pronunciation Instructions focus on? An evaluation on the accentedness of segmental/syllable errors in L2 speech

, Kunath, Stephen, Gao, Zhiyan, Luu, Vu and Thao vy Vo. 2017. Transcribing non-native speech: the development of a crowdsourcing tool to evaluate perceptions of accented speech . Presented at the 11th International Conference on Native and Non-native Accents of English, Łódź, Poland. Wilson, Colin and Lisa Davidson. 2013. Bayesian analysis of non-native cluster production. In Kan, Seda, Moore-Cantwell, Claire, and Robert Staubs (eds.), Proceedings of the Northeast linguistics society 40 . 265–276.

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Thoughts on the table: Gesture as a tool for thinking in blind and visually impaired children

Abstract

The theory of embodiment (Lakoff and Johnson 2003; Gibbs et al. 2004) explains the origin of meaning by postulating that thought is influenced by sensorimotor experience (Robbins and Aydede 2009). However, the relation between the body, mind and environment is not unidirectional. Not only do we derive information from the world, but we are also able to use it as an extension of the mind through epistemic actions, strategies that minimize the cognitive load by offloading it onto the environment (Kirsh and Maglio 1994). This paper investigates the potential of gesture as epistemic action. 12 blind and severely visually impaired children and young adults, as well as a control group of 7 young adults were interviewed for the purpose of the study. Participants were asked to explain a set of abstract and concrete concepts while their speech and gestures were recorded. If gesture indeed plays a role in reducing the mental load by externalizing thought, more gestures should be produced for concepts that are more difficult to describe (in this case: abstract, intangible concepts). Qualitative data analysis, as well as simple statistical analyses of gesture type, number and gesture per word rates show that abstract concepts do not generate more gestures, but do prompt blind and visually impaired speakers to use simulation gestures. These gestures constitute reenactments of situations associated with a given concept by the respondent. They are also thought to confirm the embodied cognition hypothesis (Hostetter and Alibali 2008). A number of examples demonstrates that abstract concepts in blind children are strongly grounded in their experience of real-world situations. Findings suggest that gesture is not merely a tool for communication, but a way of extending the capabilities of the mind.

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Language as a Symbol of Identity and a Tool of Politics and Power in Pakistan and Bangladesh

Abstract

This study aims to demonstrate the roles that domestic and foreign languages have played and play as signs of national or religious identity and social prestige and as tools of political and economic power in multilingual Pakistan and Bangladesh. Before the countries gained independence from the British Empire in 1947 and before the formation of the Indian Union and Pakistan (which was divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971), the role of an official language, remote to the majority of population in Indian subcontinent, had been gradually played by Sanskrit, Persian, and English. After gaining independence, the new countries decided to replace English as the official language with domestic languages. Their efforts encountered many problems and resulted in various solutions. Urdu became the state language in Pakistan, which caused resistance in local ethnolinguistic groups because the language had been imported by refugees from India. This resistance was the strongest in East Pakistan, where a strong national and language awareness eventually contributed to the formation of an independent Bangladesh with Bengali as the state language. Despite struggle for the dominance of domestic languages, English has preserved its prestigious position both in Pakistan and Bangladesh, as a symbol of higher social position, a language of education and science, and a tool of economic and political power.

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Lexicographic Tools to Build New Encyclopaedia of the Czech Language

, Germany, June 17-19, 2015. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, 2015. Rangelova, Albena and Jan Králík. Wider Framework of the Research Plan Creation of a Lexical Database of the Czech Language of the Beginning of the 21st Century. In Proceedings of the Computer Treatment of Slavic and East European Languages 2007, pages 209-217, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2007. Tarp, Sven. Theoretical challenges in the transition from lexicographical p-works to e-tools. In Granger, Sylviane and Magali Paquot, editors, Electronic

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RankEval: Open Tool for Evaluation of Machine-Learned Ranking

Kumaran, Vladimir Pervouchine, and Min Zhang. Report of NEWS 2009 machine transliteration shared task. In Proceedings of the 2009 Named Entities Workshop: Shared Task on Transliteration (NEWS 2009) , pages 1-18, Suntec, Singapore, Aug. 2009. Association for Computational Linguistics. Oliphant, Travis E. SciPy: Open source scientific tools for Python. Computing in Science and Engineering , 9(3):10-20, 2007. URL http://www.scipy.org. Radev, Dragomir, Hong Qi, Harris Wu, and Weiguo Fan. Evaluating web-based question answering systems. In

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rgbF: An Open Source Tool for n-gram Based Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation Output

of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (AMTA 06) , pages 223-231, Boston, MA, August 2006. Tiedemann, Jorg. News from OPUS - A Collection of Multilingual Parallel Corpora with Tools and Interfaces. In Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing , volume V, pages 237-248. John Benjamins Amsterdam, Borovets, Bulgaria, 2009.

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Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

-1008. Avramidis, Eleftherios. Quality estimation for Machine Translation output using linguistic analysis and decoding features. In Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, pages 84-90, Montréal, Canada, jun 2012b. Association for Computational Linguistics. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W12-3108. Avramidis, Eleftherios. Interoperability in MT Quality Estimation or wrapping useful stuff in various ways. In Proceedings of the LREC 2016 Workshop on Translation Evaluation: From Fragmented Tools and Data Sets to an Integrated

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Qualitative: Open Source Python Tool for Quality Estimation over Multiple Machine Translation Outputs

References Avramidis, Eleftherios. Comparative Quality Estimation: Automatic Sentence-Level Ranking of Multiple Machine Translation Outputs. In Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pages 115-132, Mumbai, India, Dec. 2012. The COLING 2012 Organizing Committee. Avramidis, Eleftherios. Sentence-level ranking with quality estimation. Machine Translation (MT), 28(Special issue on Quality Estimation):1–20, 2013a. Avramidis, Eleftherios. RankEval: Open Tool for Evaluation of Machine-Learned Ranking. The Prague

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