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Starting with Andrew Jackson, presidential candidates in the United States used campaign biographies as useful political tools, and since 1824 no presidential election year has passed without a campaign biography. Martin Van Buren, President Jackson’s successor in the White House, became a target of a vicious campaign intended to prevent his election. His Whig opponents used a number of literary genres to slander him, including a mock campaign biography and a novel. The article focuses on the portrayal of Martin Van Buren in The Life of Martin Van Buren, allegedly written by Davy Crockett in 1835, and a novel named The Partisan Leader; A Tale of the Future, written by Nathaniel Beverley Tucker in 1836. Though being of different genres, these curious and obscure works have certain things in common - they were written under pseudonyms, their main goal was to prevent the election of Martin Van Buren and both of them failed in their goal.
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Supervised practice teaching is an inseparable part of the higher education of future teachers and is perceived as the bridge between theoretical and practical preparation. It is also a tool for the development of professional competences of future teachers, therefore it is inevitable to pay attention to it in terms of theory, research and practice. This article introduces the position of self-reflection in the process of evaluating the implementation of supervised practice teaching done by students themselves. Through the analysis of self-reflecting evaluation of the implemented practice done by students, it presents various possibilities how to improve the supervised practice teaching in higher education of future teachers itself.
The following article is about the presence of English loanwords in the language used by young gamers. It is of research nature - it is based on the recognition, around the mother tongue, of primary and secondary school students. It emerges from survey research whose aim was to examine how the language of young Poles is influenced by information technology, especially computer games and films related to gaming. The most important aim of the research was to diagnose to what extent and in what form English vocabulary used in computer games penetrates everyday language of students. It was also important to establish the way in which Polish absorbs loaned vocabulary in natural communication and adjusts it to its rules (inflexion, syntax, word building). The questions prepared for the purpose of the survey examined linguistic intuition of students who had the possibility to choose the lexicon (English word and its Polish equivalent), as well as show the understanding of words typical of computer games which derive from English and are also changed in some way. The research tool also examined the student's lexical competence which was supposed to be directly related to the environment of new technology and computer games as well as examined the use of given lexicon in various syntactic constructs. The foundation for the described results and the topic discussed in this article were the thoughts regarding the role and the influence of new technological and socio-cultural reality and their influence on the changes in the language.
When the Nahua woman known as La Malinche became the interpreter of Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico, she was not only carving her name as one of history’s most influential translators, but was also rendered one of the most enduring symbols of the cultural intricacies of translation. Malinche’s knowledge of both Spanish and Nahuatl and the way it made her instrumental in the conquerors’ success took her role from the level of linguistic mediator to that of an active agent in cultural transformation, or rather cultural erosion. Having used her linguistic abilities to help the invaders against her people, Malinche has since the conquest been labeled a traitor. Becoming Cortés’s mistress served to further confirm this idea. Yet, being arguably the bearer of the first “mestizo,” Malinche came to be perceived as the mother of the Mexican people and the progenitor of the new race. In both cases, La Malinche has till this moment been emblematic of the complexities of cultural representation.
Laura Esquivel’s novel Malinche (2007) explores the heroine’s position at the crossroads between two cultures where the demarcations between the target and source languages are blurred as her allegiance is put into question. The act of translation is rendered ambivalent with the translator, being a slave to the Spaniards, lacking the free will for such a vocation, thus unable to choose sides or determine who she represents. She, however, could have played a major role in preserving the memory of her pre-Colombian world just before its eradication. Daoud Hari’s The Translator: A Tribesman’s Memory of Darfur (2008) offers a different perspective of the role of the translator. Hari, who belongs to the Zaghawa tribe in Western Sudan, acts as a mediator between his people, who are being subjected to systematic genocide by the government-backed Janjaweed militia, and the outside world. Through making the conscious decision to go back to Darfur, Hari turns his knowledge of English into the tool through which he can make the voice of his people heard, hence choosing to be their representative and taking upon himself the task of documenting their trauma.
This paper tackles the nature of translation through comparing the role of the translators in both works and exploring the different levels of representation associated with the process of translation. This will be done through examining the loyalty-treason paradigm and how far it affects, positively and/or negatively, the role of the translator as the bearer of his/her people’s memory. The paper will, therefore, deal with the relation between translation and testimony and will investigate how far translation can, in this sense, complement storytelling as a means of chronicling and resistance.