Jana Jarábková, Ľubica Majstríková and Tomáš Kozolka
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László Miklós, Zita Izakovičová, Monika Offertálerová and Viktória Miklósová
The most frequent natural disasters in Slovakia are related to climatic events, in particular to the sudden intensive rains, quick run-off and unbalanced water regime. They induce soil erosion and accumulation, flash floods, landslides, overwhelming waterlogging and also draught. Since these events have an impact throughout the whole landscape - the forest, agricultural and urban landscape, which are under the management of different sectors, the integration of the sectoral planning tools for the mitigation of their consequences is inevitable. Integration is a difficult process of dual character: it requires the development of landscape-ecological methods applicable to land management tools on one side and the creation of legal provisions ensuring the transfer of those scientific principles to legislation, on the other side. This paper deals with both sides of this process in Slovakia.
Vukan Lavadinović, Zoran Popović, Zoran Ristić and Dejan Beuković
Lavadinović V., Popović Z., Ristić Z., Beuković D.: Threats and international tools for sustainable brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) management. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 345-351, 2013.
Negative relation between humans and large carnivores with unprofitable management caused a decrease in abundance of the latter within their natural habitat. Main reasons for negative attitudes of humans towards large carnivores are damages, fear and unfamiliarity with their characteristics. Brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a European autochthonous large carnivore. Although it is not threatened at the global level, its abundance in Europe is limited to several populations. Protection has an important role in brown bear conservation, since they face different threats, mainly by negative human activities. Conservation of the brown bear is complicated due to its habitats overlapping with the human environment and also because brown bears require large territories. In order to protect brown bears more efficiently, it is important to identify the threats and to conduct the species protection by international recommendations and agreements. In this paper, we analysed brown bear distribution in Europe, abundance limitation factors and international conservation instruments.
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Barbara Poniedziałek, Halina I. Falfushynska and Piotr Rzymski
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Ecodesign — Carbon Footprint — Life Cycle Assessment — Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis. A Flexible Framework for a Continuum of Tools
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for answering questions related to environmental impacts of products. It is a comprehensive tool, addressing the entire life cycle, and addressing the full spectrum of environmental impacts. There are two opposite movements occurring: LCA is getting smaller, and it is getting broader. This presentation presents the general framework for a broader life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA), and shows how the practical work related to doing an LCA, a carbon footprint, or an analysis for ecodesign, can be seen as special cases.
Development of a Set of Criteria as an Eco-Design Tool for Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Material Choice
Eco-design is part of the product design process aimed at reducing the environmental impacts of products during their entire lifecycle. Nowadays, the eco-design concept becomes more and more important, and it is also incorporated in the latest developments in legislation. However, with regard to the implementation of eco-design, many guidelines and tools still focus on the strategic level, but the practical tools are underdeveloped. In order to promote eco-design in the industry, there is a need for the further development of more practical tools, taking into account the scientific findings, but also making them applicable into a product design process. The intention of this paper is to present major considerations in order to develop a set of criteria for the material choice taking into account LCA studies and available data regarding environmental performance of materials. The proposed criteria system is based on three main criteria - toxicity, energy, recyclability, which corresponds to the main impact areas of material choice according to findings from the published LCA studies. These criteria are also linked to each other - e.g. with increasing recyclability one can decrease the energy content, as well as the toxic dispersion. The important innovation in this list of criteria would be that the product design - product structure -and use patterns (incl. end of life scenario) is linked to energy content, recyclability and toxicity. The next step would be development of the quantifiable values of this criteria system (expressed in 5 units), in order to make it more applicability of a quick screening tool in the product design process.
Wolfram Groschopf, Elmar Fuerst, Sebastian Kummer and David Herold
Improving environmental performance of road transport through carbon reduction initiatives can be a demand challenge, in particular for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Whether existing carbon reduction potentials are effectively and efficiently uncovered largely depends on the availability of information as well as on how to make use of it. An often-observed problem is the lack of tools for SMEs to obtain useful carbon-related information from road transport. Against the background of a case study of the carbon-tracking tool CO2-Tec, this paper highlights the importance of decision-making information and demonstrates how carbon reduction potentials in road transportation can be uncovered for SMEs. Particular attention is paid to the information needs of the SMEs and how these needs can be fulfilled. The analysis of the results suggests a pattern of action that increases the efficacy and efficiency of information management and use in corporate practice.
Éva Horváth, Szabolcs Solt, László Kotymán, Péter Palatitz, Imre Sándor Piross and Péter Fehérvári
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Kalotás, Z. & Nikodémusz, E. 1981. Szelektív varjúirtás lehetősége a 3-klór-4-metilanilin-hidroklorid anyaggal. 1. Etetési és szabadföldi vizsgálatok
Felicien Amakpe, Lina De Smet, Marleen Brunain, Frans J. Jacobs, Brice Sinsin and Dirk C. de Graaf
Morphometric characteristics combined with genetic markers are powerful tools used for determining honey bee subspecies. Bees samples collected from 94 established apiaries distributed throughout all of the Republic of Benin were morphometricaly characterized using seven parameters and the COI-COII regions of mitochondrial DNA were sequenced. Based on the morphometric data the native honey bees could be divided into three distinct ecotypes - the Benino-dry-tropical-ecotype in the north, the Benino-Sudanian-ecotype in the central part and the Benino-Sudano-Guinean-ecotype in the south. The DNA COI-COII regions sequence analyses confirmed that the honey bee population of the Republic of Benin belongs to different mitotypes but do not correspond with the determined ecotypes. We could determine three new haplotypes which missed the P0 segment but the Q region was duplicated or triplicated. Phylogenetic analyses clustered them together in the A evolutionary lineage. In conclusion, morphometric and genetic analysis of the native West African honey bees indicated that each of the different mitotypes was able to adapt to the different ecological conditions in the country by morphometric adjustments.