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Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is treated as a nonspecific indicator of stress, but even so, many authors consider it the most reliable tool stress in anthropological research. Its analysis allows the reconstruction of health related to the socio-economic status of the group. This study documents and interprets patterns of LEH in Żerniki Górne (Poland), a settlement which was functional in the Late Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. We examined two successive cultures: the Corded Ware Culture (CWC; 3200-2300BC) and the Trzciniec Culture (TC; 1500-1300BC). In total, there were 1486 permanent teeth (124 adult individuals). The frequency of LEH in the examined cultures shows a small rising trend. In these series from Żernik Górne, males showed a higher occurrence of LEH (16.5%) than females (13.4%). The earliest LEH appeared at similar ages at about 2.0/2.2 years and the last LEH occurred at about 4.2 years of age in both cultures. However, it is worth noting that periods associated with physiological stress were more common but not very long (four months on average) in the CWC. Longer stress periods (nine months on average) were associated with the TC.
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The values of body weight and height can be recorded in various ways. Self-reports and parental-report methods are amongst the most typical ways to collect data. These methods have advantages, but also limits. Anthropometric measures are recommended to improve measurement precision. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the parental-reported body weight and height of 7-8-year-old Czech children corresponded with the measured body weight and height. Data concerning children’s body weight and body height were collected via parental informed consent and anthropometric measurements. The research sample consisted of 388 children from 7 to 8 years-old (boys, n = 176; girls, n = 162). Only children with parental informed consent were included. Correlations between parental-reported and measured data were analysed with the Pearson correlation coefficient to examine the strength of linear dependence between the two methods. The differences between parental-reported and measured data were tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. P-values below α = 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Parents manifested a tendency to underestimate body weight and especially the body height of their children. This trend was seen in boys and girls in both age groups. Out of the 338 children with parent-reported height, parents under-reported their child’s height by 1 cm or more in 37.1% of the children, 39.6% of the parents reported a height within 0.99 cm of the measured height, and 23.3% of parents over-reported their child’s height by 1 cm or more. The same number of children had parent-reported weights, parents under-reported their child’s weight by 1 kg and more in 25.2% of the children, 57.7% of the parents reported a weight within 0.99 kg of the measured weight, and 17.1% of the parents over-reported their child’s weight by 1 kg or more. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the measured and parental-reported height and weight revealed a statistically significant strong positive linear relationship in both genders (rheight = 0.912, rweight = 0.943; all p< 0.001). The differences between the measured and parental-reported height and weight were not significantly different (all p< 0.05). The high agreement and correlation between measured and parental-reported body height and weight suggest that parental-report methods can be an appropriate alternative to objective measurement and can be used as a valid tool to classify body height and weight for large population studies of Czech children in school-based research when anthropometric measures are not available.
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