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Electrochemical reduction of azo dyes mimicking their biotransformation to more toxic products

aim of this study was to investigate the reduction products of selected azo dyes using the technique of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry (EC–MS). Afterwards, a comparison was made with data available in literature and software for predicting metabolic pathways. Particular attention was paid to the harmful aromatic amine reduction EC products. Based on these results an analytical method using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was developed as a tool for the confirmation of the identified products obtained by

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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI/H5N1) Virus Search from Wild Birds in Ghana

:// . 17. WHO Interim Global Epidemiological Surveillance Standards for Influenza, 2012: WHO Global Technical Consultation: Global Standards and Tools for Influenza Surveillance . M . 18. World Organisation for Animal Health, 2016: Update on Avian Influenza in Animals (types H5 and H7) . Retrieved from .

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Bivagina pagrosomi Murray (1931) (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea), a microcotylid infecting the gills of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata (Sparidae) from the Red Sea: morphology and phylogeny

online Tool (BLAST, The sequence trimming for the congeneric species recovered was carried out by Bioedit v7.2.5, sequence alignment was done by CLUSTAL W v2.0 ( 13 ) and the phylogenetic tree was constructed using theMEGA7 ( 11 ) programme based on maximum likelihood analysis. Allodiscocotyla diacanthi ( 26 ) was employed as an out-group during tree construction. Results Diagnosis. Diagnosis was based on seven specimens. Body elongation ( Fig. 1a) was dorsoventrally flattened and lanceolated. Terminal anchors were

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Review on the laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

81.8% and the specificity is 98.6%. When the IgM antibody titer in the acute phase changes, the sensitivity of real-time quantitative PCR is 91.7%. Thus, real-time quantitative PCR can be used as a diagnostic tool for MP infection [ 16 ]. Other studies considered specimen collection time to have an impact on real-time quantitative PCR results. As the disease worsens, the sensitivity of PCR detected by real-time quantitative PCR also decreases [ 17 ]. 3.1.3 LAMP technology LAMP is a new technology developed in recent years. It has a high sensitivity and

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Marine tetrodotoxin as a risk for human health – a review

analysing TTX and many TTX analogues such as 4-epiTTX, 11-oxoTTX, and 4,9-anhydroTTX ( 4 , 28 , 34 , 35 , 46 ). However, it has the complication of quite large differences in intensity of fluorescence between analogues, e.g . 6-epi TTX is 20 times more fluorescent than TTX, while 11-deoxy TTX is 100 times less fluorescent ( 53 ). This problem is solved when the LC– MS technique for TTX determination is used. LC–MS techniques using atmospheric pressure ionisation with an electrospray-ionisation (ESI) in positive ion mode have become a powerful tool for TTX

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Determination of steroid esters in hair of slaughter animals by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

capabilities were determined. The calculation tool was ResVal software (v. 2.0) shared by the EURL in Wageningen in the Netherlands, and this application assumes the execution of four experiments ( 2 ). The instrumental linearity of the method was evaluated on the basis of four calibration curves of standard working solutions of steroid esters, prepared one for each of the four experiments assumed. All the calibration curves had seven cross points for analytes concentrations corresponding to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 25, and 50 μg kg −1 and for IS solutions at 50 μg kg −1 in

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Spectrophotometric Analysis of the Resazurin Reduction Test as a Tool for Assessing Canine Semen Quality


The resazurin reduction test (RRT) was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to evaluate the quality of canine semen. Twenty four samples of canine semen were analysed. The absorption peaks for resazurin and resorufin were determined at 615 and 580 nm, respectively. The RRT ratio (RRTsperm-the ratio for samples containing spermatozoa, RRTplasma-the ratio for samples containing seminal plasma) was calculated by dividing the absorbance at 580 nm by the absorbance at 615 nm. Spearman’s correlation test was used to determine the significance of correlations between the analysed sperm parameters and the results of the resazurin reduction assay. The RRT ratio was highly correlated with sperm motility (r=0.68, P<0.01), progressive sperm motility (r=0.61, P<0.01), the subpopulation of cells with rapid velocity (r=0.72, P<0.01), and the subpopulation of cells with medium velocity (r= -0.54, P<0.05). A negative correlation was observed between the reducing capacity of seminal plasma vs. sperm with plasma membrane integrity (r= -0.60, P<0.01) and sperm with normal morphology (r= -0.58, P<0.01). The RRT test can be used as an additional tool for evaluation of the quality of canine semen.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Useful Tool for the Selection of Pharmacological and Surgical Treatment Options for Canine Hydrocephalus


A group of 12 dogs, eight of small breeds and four of medium-sized breeds, were used in the study. Prior to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, all dogs were subjected to neurological, laboratory, and electroencephalographic examinations, and trans-fontanel ultrasonography was additionally performed in two patients. The acquired obstructive hydrocephalus was diagnosed in two dogs, idiopathic obstructive hydrocephalus - in four patients, obstructive congenital hydrocephalus - in five dogs, and hydrocephalus ex vacuo- in one patient. Ten dogs were put under the pharmacological therapy, and in two patients the condition was treated surgically. MRI proved to be a valuable tool that supports selection of the appropriate pharmacological and surgical treatment. MRI scans also appear to be useful in monitoring an effectiveness of the applied form of treatment.

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Isoelectric focusing of proteins in the pH gradient as a tool for identification of species origin of raw meat



Health, religious, and commercial aspects justify the need for meat species identification. The lack of officially approved methods prompts the undertaking of research on validation of isoelectric focusing of proteins (IEF) for official purposes.

Material and Methods

Samples were prepared from pigs (Sus scrofa ferus domestica), cattle (Bos taurus), and poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus). Meat mixtures were made by blending 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.2% meat of other species. Samples were examined on ultrathin polyacrylamide gels with pH 3–9 gradient.


The results of the study confirmed the stable and reproducible pattern of meat protein bands. The detection limit of raw meat admixtures from pigs, cattle, and poultry mostly ranged from 2% down to 0.2% (0.2% for poultry). However, the IEF method can be used to detect the addition of pig meat to bovine meat in an amount higher than 3%. At the significant mixture level (i.e at least 5% addition of meat of another species) IEF proves itself with 100% specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy.


The achieved detection limits provide a basis for recommending the IEF method for routine tests in laboratories detecting the species origin of meat.

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In silico analysis of virulence associated genes in genomes of Escherichia coli strains causing colibacillosis in poultry

.K.: The genome sequence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O1:K1:H7 shares strong similarities with human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli genomes. J Bacteriol 2007, 189, 3228–3236. 12. Johnson T.J., Wannemuehler Y., Doetkott C., Johnson S.J., Rosenberger S.C., Nolan L.K.: Identification of minimal predictors of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli virulence for use as a rapid diagnostic tool. J Clin Microbiol 2008, 46, 3987–3996. 13. Jones E., Oliphant T., Peterson P.: SciPy: open source scientific tools for Python, 2001. http

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