Justyna Bucholska, Piotr Minkiewicz, Małgorzata Darewicz and Anna Iwaniak
synthesis, antibody development and competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay for s-triazine herbicides. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1990, 38, 990-996.
30. Gowthaman U., Agrewala J.N., In Silico tools for predicting peptides binding to HLA-class II molecules: more confusion than conclusion. J. Proteome Res., 2008, 7, 154-163.
31. Gűnther S., Hempel D., Dunkel M., Rother K., Preissner R., SuperHapten: a comprehensive database for small immunogenic compounds. Nucleic Acids Res., 2007, 35, D906-D910.
32. Harzing A.W., Alakangas S
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Mulero-Pazmany M, Stolper R, Van Essen LD, Negro JJ, Sassen T (2014): Remotely piloted aircraft systems as a rhinoceros anti-poaching tool in Africa. PLoS ONE, 9, e83873. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083873.
OpenCV dev team (2018): Basic thresholding operations. https://docs.opencv.org/2.4/doc/tutorials/imgproc/threshold/threshold.html . Accessed 21 June, 2018.
Patrovsky A, Biebl EM (2005): Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing. Advances
Chemistry, 22(13): 3239-3244. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2014.05.003
Iheukwumere CC, Atiri GI, Fawole B, Dashiell KE (1995): Evaluation of some commonly grown soybean cultivars for resistance to root knot nematode and soybean mosaic virus in Nigeria. Fitopatologia brasileira, 20, 190-193.
Iwu MM (1993): Handbook of African medicinal plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Janila P, Nigam S, Pandey M, Nagesh P, Varshney R (2013): Groundnut Improvement: Use of Genetic and Genomic Tool, Plant Science Journal, 4, 1-16.
Jaworska M, Gorczyca A (2002): The Effect of Metal
The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of microfinance on the poor, particularly in the specific areas of economic and social development of people and their employment. The research was carried out in Jordan, a country with a well-developed microfinance sector. The results have shown that microfinance has led to an improvement in the financial and social situation of the poor, especially for female clients of microfinance institutions. Interestingly, the higher income of clients has not caused higher expenditure on their basic needs, but rather people have generated saving for their future and used the additional money for education. According to the results of the microfinance impact assessment, it can be assumed that people, particularly females, prefer to improve the social situation for future generations. Based on this finding, we consider microfinance an effective tool for breaking the vicious circles of poverty, especially in Jordan. Furthermore, microcredits have facilitated in increasing employment for the poor, mainly through self-employment. It is believed that there exists a direct connection to the future expansion of microcredits that will lead to the development of small businesses with a promising impact on employability throughout the population structure.
Mircea Oroian, Sonia Amariei, Ana Leahu and Gheorghe Gutt
The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of 36 honey samples of 4 different botanical origins (acacia, sun flower, tilia and honeydew) from the North East region of Romania. An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was used to determine 27 elements in honey (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn). We would like to achieve the following goal: to demonstrate that the qualitative and quantitative multi-element composition determination of honey can be used as a suitable tool to classify honey according to its botanical origin. The principal component analysis allowed the reduction of the 27 variables to 2 principal components which explained 74% of the total variance. The dominant elements which were strongly associated with the principal component were K, Mg and Ca. Discriminant models obtained for each kind of botanical honey confirmed that the differentiation of honeys according to their botanical origin was mainly based on multi-element composition. A correct classification of all samples was achieved with the exception of 11.1% of honeydew honeys.
B. Wielinga, C. A. Raymond, R. James and A. C. Matheson
Zealand. FRI Bulletin No. 203. pp. 120-124.
CARTER, P., D. BRIGGS, R. J. ROSS and X. WANG (2005a): Acoustic testing to enhance western forest values and meet customer wood quality needs. In: HARRINGTON, C. A. and SCHOENHOLTZ, S. H. (eds.). Productivity of Western Forests: a Forest Products Focus. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-642, Portland, USA. 176 p.
CARTER, P., X. WANG, R. J. ROSS and D. BRIGGS (2005b): NDE of logs and standing trees using new acoustic tools: technical applications and results. In: BRÖKER, F
Gian Nicola Frongia, Tanja Peric, Giovanni Leoni, Valentina Satta, Fiammetta Berlinguer, Marco Muzzeddu, Alberto Prandi, Salvatore Naitana and Antonella Comin
The use of a non-invasive approach to collect biological samples from natural populations represents a great means of gathering information while avoiding handling animals. Even if corticosterone is the main glucocorticoid investigated in birds, it has been observed a proportional direct link between corticosterone and cortisol concentrations. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be produced by the adrenal cortex and should have prominent antiglucocorticoid properties also in birds. The aim of this study was to verify if there is any difference in the cortisol and DHEA feather concentrations between clinically normal and physiologically compromised Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) through the non-invasive approach of collecting moulted feathers without having to pluck them from the bird. The study was carried out using 8 physiologically compromised (PC) Griffons and 9 clinically normal Griffons considered as the control (CTRL) group that were necropsied or from the wildlife rehabilitation centre. Primary and secondary covert feathers were either collected directly from the birds’ cage floors, or, in the case of dead Griffons, they were plucked off the animals. The results, obtained by RIA, revealed that both cortisol (P<0.01) and DHEA (P<0.05) feather concentrations were higher in the PC than in the CTRL group. No difference was observed by comparing the cortisol/DHEA ratio between the two evaluated groups (P=0.15). Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed no correlation between feather hormone concentrations in the PC group (r=0.01, P=0.96) while a positive correlation in the CTRL group (r=0.65, P=0.006) was observed. In conclusion, our study reveals that moulted feathers can be a non-invasive and an interesting tool to evaluate the allostatic load of wild birds and they allowed to better understand the relationship between hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the physiological status of the birds.
17. WHO Interim Global Epidemiological Surveillance Standards for Influenza, 2012: WHO Global Technical Consultation: Global Standards and Tools for Influenza Surveillance . M http://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/technical_consultation/en/index.html .
18. World Organisation for Animal Health, 2016: Update on Avian Influenza in Animals (types H5 and H7) . Retrieved from http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/update-on-avian-influenza/2016/ .
Peter Kaštier, Michaela Martinčová, Roderik Fiala and Alžbeta Blehová
Dodder (Cuscuta) species cause severe agricultural damage in many countries throughout the world. To establish strategies for control of its growth and spreading it is important to study its life cycle and survival strategies. For these efforts genetic modification would represent a powerful tool. Here we report on Agrobacteriummediated transformation of dodder using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to actin-binding protein as a vital marker. Since the shoot of germinating C. europaea contains a functional apical meristem and grows quickly comparing to the root-like structure, the shoot apex was used here as explant. The transgene expression was only transient, nevertheless it enabled to detect allocation of actin filaments and studying the cytoskeleton organization in dodder shoot apex. Transient expression of GFP appears to be a suitable method for studying Cuscuta development through cytoskeleton organisation that is presently largely unexplored.
Pierfausto Seneci, Giorgio Fassina, Vladimir Frecer and Stanislav Miertus
MORTIER, J., RAKERS, C., FREDERICK, R., WOLBER, G.: Computational tools for in silico fragment-based drug design. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 12, 2012, 1935-1943.
NAIK, A. D., MENEGATTI, S., GURGEL, P. V., CARBONELL, R. G.: Performance of hexamer peptide ligands for affinity purification of immunoglobulin G from commercial cell culture media. J. Chromatogr. A, 1218, 2011, 1691-700.
NIXON, A.E.: Phage Display as a Tool for Protease Ligand Discovery. Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol., 3, 2002, 1-12.
NOPPE, W., PLIEVA, F. M., GALAEV, I. Y