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Preußens bis zum Ende des Staates 1947. Analog und doch völlig verschieden gestaltete sich eine ›provinzielle Staatsbildung‹ in den Niederlanden. Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad und Paul van Trigt zeigen in ihrem Beitrag am Beispiel Südhollands, wie sich Provinzialverwaltungen an der Staatsbildung beteiligten, indem sie sich als administrative Institutionen des neuen Einheitsstaates erfanden und mittels ›little tools of knowledge‹ Zu diesem Konzept vgl. Peter Becker / William Clark: »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker / William Clark (Hg.): Little Tools of

-Claude Scholsem (Substitute Member, Belgium), Mr Jorgen Steen Sørensen (Member, Denmark). The opinion is also reprinted in D. Carrillo (ed.) and others, The Icelandic Federalist Papers, 2018, p. 191–243. Frymus M., Nyks Ł., Policastro P. (2015), Great Green Wall: Africa for Africa , feature film produced by World Peace Lab and Nyks Media (executive producer), M. Frymus, director, Ł. Nyks, pictures, P. Policastro, scientific supervision. T. Gylfason, A. Meuwese, Digital Tools and the Derailment of Iceland’s New Constitution, CESIFO working paper no. 5997 Jarrett E. (2015

Abstract

In the light of the relevant terms of this issue, »state«, »space« and »administration«, this contribution considers the intertwining between representations of order, their administration, and the governance of the subjects in the sovereignty areas of Salzburg and Tyrol in the Zillertal. The different ideas of space – investigated from the perspectives of various groups of the population, of local officials, and of the government centers – changed throughout the examined period. At its beginning, the authorities in the government centers endeavored to keep the borders open for mutual exchange, whereas the local officials used their administrative tools to stage a competition with the officials of the neighboring district, e.g. by blocking and redirecting the subjects’ pathways of movement. In this situation, a more open construction of space confronted a more mistrustful one aimed at enclosure and the guarding of borders. In the context of negotiations for a general border settlement between Tyrol and Salzburg, and on the basis of newly developed conceptions of a state as having a clearly defined sovereignty area, capable of being governed without any foreign influence up to its borders, the interventions of the government centers started to change. Borders were adjusted and a clear assignment of the subjects was demanded. However, the more an exact correspondence between space and sovereignty was pursued, the more obvious the impossibility of this undertaking became. Seemingly well-demarcated border lines appeared vague when regarded closely. Their official description was at odds with the subjects’ construction and usage of spaces. While their spatial behaviors were determined by the norms of the sovereign centers and controlled by the administrative work of the officials, the subjects developed their own strategies for dealing with these interventions in their constructions of space and adjusting to them.

zagadnienia, A. Adamska, E. Mączyńska (eds.), Warszawa 2012, p. 401-415 [Submitting an application for bankruptcy as a tool in the struggle for controlling the public company, [in:] Bankruptcy and repair companies.[Selected issues]. Feliga P., Stanowisko prawne syndyka w procesie dotyczącym masy upadłości, Warszawa 2013 [The legal position of the trustee in the bankruptcy]. Flaga-Gieruszyńska K., Prawo upadłościowe i naprawcze, Warszawa 2012 [Bankruptcy and Reorganization Law]. Hrycaj A., Th e Bankruptcy Court and the Judge-Commissioner in Poland, www

of infrastructural work, involvement in welfare and health arrangements, and the monitoring of economic developments. We foreground the ›little tools of knowledge‹, such as periodical reports, circulars, statistical investigations, handbooks, and the like, to capture the administrative mentality of the officials in action. Our choice of sources has been inspired by Peter Becker / William Clark (ed.): Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001. It is the thick description and contextualization of

content delivery. Adopted the following new vision and mission statements: the vision is »a society which remembers its pasts, listens to all its voices, and pursues social justice« and the mission is »to contribute to the making of a just society by keeping alive the legacy of Nelson Mandela, providing an integrated public information resource on his life and times, and by convening dialogue around critical social issues.« Approved a re-branding of the organisation as the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory and its final re-tooling as a leaner human rights-oriented NGO, to

shapes knowledge. Knowledge circulates between different historical actors with different agendas and thus forms an important element in producing knowledges. For the idea of circulating knowledge, see Philipp Sarasin, »Was ist Wissensgeschichte?«, in: Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 36 (2011), p. 159–172. In the case of the ›Head of Household‹ it was one specific tool that circulated between different historical actors and produced knowledge. This specific tool leads us to the administrative component of the story: knowledge about

. First, this critical approach enables them to understand the position they occupy in the academic field, thus creating awareness that can lead them to question the intellectual categories they have used to study administrative history as well as their research practices. Second, the theory of fields provides the intellectual tools to conduct empirical studies that present generalizable conclusions. If this has been a goal more easily achieved in the social sciences, historical studies have struggled more with the possibility of reaching conclusions that can possibly

the auxiliary sciences of history with the theoretical and methodological tools of media studies. As Felix Lüttge in his ›Re-reading‹ essay explains: The files in ›Files‹ elude any general definition. They are not ›discrete and enumerable units‹, they are not the contents of manila folders and filing cabinets. The files, of which Vismann writes, ›can appear in all shapes and forms: as loose pages, lying in little boxes, wrapped in packing paper, or enclosed in capsules; they may present themselves as bundles tied with a string or assume the shape of vertical

The terms ›files‹ and ›administration‹ generally evoke images of rather complex bureaucratic structures, producing mountains of papers to manage even the simplest matters. While this picture conveys a critical undertone, it nevertheless implies a highly specialised written administration applying sophisticated tools and processes. These cultural techniques once had to be developed. In this more elusive era in the history of administration, the question was rather if something written is needed at all, and the few documents drawn up were little specialised