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DNA technology – when applied properly – provides the criminal justice system with a highly reliable identification method, which can be used to both convict and exonerate individuals. At the same time, however, this capacity of DNA technology undermines various forensic science identification techniques, including tool-mark, fingerprint, and bite-mark analysis, which the criminal justice system has routinely admitted as evidence for decades. See, in general , Paul C. Giannelli, Forensic Science: Under the Microscope 34 Ohio N. U. L. Rev
in the way of government economic regulation. As a result, the Court-packing Plan quietly faded away.
The tools that Owen Roberts and his colleagues employed in exercising “judgement” are familiar to all legal professionals. They include exploration of the language of the Constitution and the intentions of those who wrote it; previous decisions of the courts on the same or similar issues – legal precedent; and respect for canons of judicial behaviour that ensure that courts do not not usurp powers assigned to other branches of government. In contrast to the
this ‘tradition,’ as described by Ted Cruz, was misleading. Linda Qui, Fact-checking Claims About the 80-Year SCOTUS Nomination ‘Tradition’ , Politifact , (Feb. 17, 2016 at 3.31 PM), https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2016/feb/17/misleading-notion-supreme-court-vacancy-hasnt-been/ The reality was that the Supreme Court was too important an institution and political prize for McConnell to allow Obama to further impose his imprint on the court without using all the tools at his disposal to obstruct the sitting president.
European Commission. Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects Economic appraisal tool for Cohesion Policy 2014–2020. [online]. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/cba_guide.pdf Accessed: 14.06.2019
European Patent Office. Cost of a Unitary Patent . [online]. Available at: https://www.epo.org/law-practice/unitary/unitary-patent/cost.html Accessed: 14.06.2019
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For a long time considered, improperly, a sort of ‘nuclear’ option, Article 7 TEU is the key EU Treaty provision in the field of values enforcement. In the context of the Union’s current rule of law crisis, such a provision deserves the greatest attention, especially after the European Commission’s proposal in December 2017 to trigger the procedure against Poland, under Article 7(1) TEU. This article contributes to understandings of the provision by reviewing its main features and contextualising its deployment in the general Polish rule of law crisis, with the aim of evaluating whether it can now be considered as an operational instrument for values enforcement. Although the Commission’s (late) decision to activate the Article 7(1) TEU procedure should be welcomed as a major effort in restoring the rule of law within the European Union, the (perceived and real) limits of Article 7 TEU and the inertia of the EU institutions cast a shadow over the procedure’s effective implementation.
system. In doing that, some basic ideas of Marx such as the labor theory of value, surplus value and capital, and the state as a band of hostile brothers can then become tools for a further dialectical examination of the income tax system, taking various areas of that system and, using Marx’s concepts, abstracting them to better understand them and the system of which they are a part, capitalism. John Passant, Some Basic Marxist Concepts To Help Understand Income Tax , 27 J. J URIS . 263 (2015).
The tax system is under constant pressure for reform. Fleur Anderson
The paper deals with the non-normative impacts of the EU law in the national legal systems (Czech Republic in particular) and focuses on the approach of the Czech Constitutional Court (CCC) towards the so-called principle of indirect effect of EU law. The authors examine the case law of CCC and offer the conclusions about the place, constitutional relevance and (national) limits of the EU-consistent interpretation of national law. CCC up to date case law clearly indicates that a EU-consistent interpretation is the most ideal tool for meeting the Czech Republic’s membership obligations. But it is simultaneously a tool for preserving the autonomy of the national authorities applying law and reduces possible tensions between supranational and nation law. CCC accepts the indirect effect broadly and used this concept even in controversial cases (European arrest warrant, State responsibility for damages etc.). But still it does not approach this effect without reservations. CCC points on the necessity to protect the fundamental constitutional values (‘Solange’ concept) even in connection with the duty of EU-consistent interpretation.