Margareta Nadanyiova, Jana Kliestikova and Juraj Kolencik
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In today’s trade, the vast majority of commercial transactions in both domestic and international trade are concluded by applying trade credit terms. The aim of this article is to analyse the trade credit insurance and, according to the methodology, to evaluate it as a credit risk management tool in the context of Lithuanian business market. The authors have proposed a methodology that combines theoretical and practical research methods. First of all, with assistance of qualitative analysis, the alternative external credit risk management tools were examined. Such analysis allows not only to identify the advantages, disadvantages and benefits of researched risk management tools but also to assess the efficiency and rationality of trade credit insurance in the context of alternative methods. In order to carry out an assessment in the practical aspect, considering the lack of statistical data, it was decided additionally to perform an expert evaluation. After performing an assessment of trade credit insurance, it was concluded that in international trade, with a large buyer portfolio and high sales volume, the trade credit insurance becomes the most effective and rational way to manage credit risk, which eliminates the losses because of the debtor’s insolvency or bankruptcy, manages countries and sector’s risks and helps to discipline the debtor, what determines the decline in overdue accounts frequencies, amounts and volumes.
The Parliamentary control is exerted not only on the Government but also on some autonomous administrative authorities and on some special bodies under its subordination. The constitutional norms are extremely synthetic on this form of parliamentary control, as only the art. 116 par. 2 of the Constitution stipulates that specialised bodies may be established which to function under Government subordination or as autonomous administrative structures, by organic law.
The Ombudsman Institution is an autonomous administrative authority established according to the Constitutional provisions, the activity of which is under Parliament control.
For the first time, the Ombudsman has been established in Sweden as additional tool to the control exerted by the Parliament on the executive power. Additional guarantees were enforced by it, as being an institution with democratic character, for the defence of the rule of law and for the protection of the individual rights and freedoms.
On the Ombudsman’s appointment and role, the article 58 of the 1991 Romanian Constitution stipulates that the person in charge is to be appointed by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate in joint meeting, its appointment being of five years and that the Ombudsman cannot have another civil or private service except for the teaching positions in higher education.
The concern for delinquent children’s social and emotional development in closed institutions is a significant topic in educational research. This shows the need to improve the existing re-socialisation practice. Despite the fact that school effectiveness and school improvement researches theoretically have different general purposes and value bases, educational effectiveness and improvement paradigm involves both trends, which are combined by the same aspects: scientific approach and empirical data based on educational settings; knowledge of how to improve the school practice; and use of this knowledge for social purposes. In this context, the concept of the school culture is one of the main variables that allow us to answer how to address the needs of all children and improve their academic or social outcomes. The aim of this article is to illustrate the cultural characteristics of children’s socialisation centres as specific schools and to identify the guidelines for improving their performance. The mission of children’s socialisation centres is to re-socialise delinquent behaviour of children and to help them to integrate into the society. Quantitative data for measuring the school culture is obtained from the survey that was conducted using the School Culture Inventory (Maslowski, 2001). This instrument is based on the Competing Values Framework (Cameron, Quinn, 2011) consisting of four dimensions, which are labelled by human relations, open systems, rational goal and internal process orientation. The theoretical value of the survey is the analysis of school culture in terms of successful re-socialisation. The cultural profiles of these schools showed the priorities that require practical changes.
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Vita Stige-Skuskovnika, Inga Milevica, Olga Civzele and Armiyash Nurmagambetova
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Brynjolfsson E., Kahin B. (2000). Understanding the Digital Economy: Data, Tools, and Research. [Accessed 16.03.2019]. Available from Internet: https://books.google.lt/books?id=dpf2hL6EGcC&pg=PA13&hl=lt&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false
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Research purpose. This paper aims at identifying and evaluating the means of communication used and the perceived barriers from employees of the banking system in Albania. The following research questions were formulated: (a) What are the means of communication used in vertical and horizontal communications? (b) Which mean is preferred and valued as the most effective? (c) Which are the barriers that hinder the effective communication flow in these organizations?
Design/Methodology/Approach. A structured questionnaire was addressed to 120 employees of 3 different commercial banks in Tirana, Albania, out of which 100 fully answered questionnaires were received. The questionnaire is divided into three main parts, each of which has two subcategories, and the valuation used for each question is according to the Likert scale from 1 (very few) to 5 (a lot).
Findings. E-mail is the most used communication tool vertically, whereas phone and e-mail are added at the horizontal one. Employee preferences are mostly for e-mail and face-to-face communication vertically and phone and e-mail horizontally. Time pressure and overload of information are perceived as main barriers vertically, whereas distractions are mentioned as biggest hindrance horizontally.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. We suggest that the managers of organizations in the banking sector should properly consider these two communication tools and create suitable conditions for their use. The employees themselves use more of those tools as, according to their perception during communication with colleagues, those tools improve their effectiveness. Other similar studies might be conducted in different types of organizations to point out similarities and contrasts with banking sector.
Despite the initial function of hashtags as tools for sorting and aggregating information according to topics, the social media currently witness a diversity of uses diverging from the initial purpose. The aim of this article is to investigate the communicative functions of hashtags through a combined approach of literature review, field study and case study. Different uses of hashtags were subjected to semantic analysis in order to disclose generalizable trends. As a result, ten communicative functions were identified: topic-marking, aggregation, socializing, excuse, irony, providing metadata, expressing attitudes, initiating movements, propaganda and brand marketing. These findings would help to better understand modern online discourse and to prove that hashtags are to be considered as a meaningful part of the message. A limitation of this study is its restricted volume.