shaded relief representation by clustering aspect. “The Cartographical Journal” Vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 291−300.
Veronesi F., Hurni L., 2015, A GIS tool to increase the visual quality of relief shading by automatically changing the light direction. “Computers and Geosciences” Vol. 74, pp. 121−127.
Viljoen D., Harris J., 2006, Saturation and value modulation (SVM): A new method for integrating color and grey-scale imagery. “Digital Mapping Techniques ‘06 − Workshop Proceedings, 11−14 June 2006”. Columbus, Ohio. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007
The purpose of this article is to report a study aimed at systematic assessment of the functionality of commercially available software for the automatic generation of area cartograms. The issue of the wide choice of algorithms developed over the years for generating various types of surfaces has also been raised.
Cartograms (called also anamorphic maps) are constructed by changing the surface area of each spatial unit in step with the corresponding value of the mapped thematic variable (area cartogram) or changing accordingly the distance between the preselected focal point and other points on the map (distance cartogram). Depending on the shape of mapping units, the following three types of area cartograms can be distinguished:
proportional symbol cartograms were the original shapes of mapping units have been replaced with simple geometric shapes such as squares, rectangles or circles (for example, Dorling Circle Cartograms, square cartogram);
continuous regular cartograms where the shapes of areal units on the map resemble the actual shapes of the mapped units but their boundaries have been geometrized to consist of perpendicular sections;
continuous irregular cartograms where the shapes of areal units on the map resemble the actual shapes of the mapped units but unit boundaries are not straight lines.
Cartograms can also be constructed to preserve spatial contiguity (continuous cartograms) or not (noncontinuous cartograms), with the latter often preserving the underlying neighborhood relationships to some degree.
While constructing area cartogram, one needs to decide first the type of a surface to be developed, and therefore, the algorithm to be applied. The next step in map construction is the choice of software, where tool selection depends often on the predetermined type of the cartogram.
The study surveyed five programs for the construction of area cartograms – all available free of charge. Each of those software tools was used to generate area cartograms portraying data from the 2010 presidential election in Poland.
Two groups of area cartograms where generated for the purpose of this study: maps of the entire Poland by voivodships, showing the number of valid votes cast for the two presidential candidates in each voivodship, and maps of the Mazowieckie voivodship by county, portraying the number of valid votes cast for the individual candidates in each county.
The subsequent in-depth assessment of surveyed programs took into account eleven criteria including the number of cartogram types that might be developed using each program, availability of tools for the proper legend construction and display, possibility of supplementing the cartogram with complementary choropleth maps, the option for inserting map labels, the type of spatial data that can be used in the software (reference to points, lines, polygons) and so on.
The study has demonstrated that the tool included in the ArcGIS (Cartogram Utility for ArcGIS) best met the survey criteria scoring 9 points. The application Scape Toad placed second (7.5 pts.), while MapViewer 7 came third (6.25 pts.).
When generating cartograms in the available GIS programs, one should also pay attention to the visual qualities of the generated maps, and in particular, to the resemblance of shapes of spatial units on the map to the their actual geographic boundaries. Since the shape outlines obtained on the map vary depending on the underlying geodetic reference system, the best coordinate system for the mapped area should be selected. However, if such system cannot be used within a given cartogram generating tool, then the obtained cartogram should be exported and refined with some general software package for graphic editing.
Afzal W., Torkar R., Feldt R., 2009, A systematic review of search-based testing for non-functional system properties . “Inf. Software Technology” Vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 957–976.
Bennett R., O’Neill E.T., Kammerer K., 2014, assign-FAST: An autosuggest-based tool for FAST subject assignment . “Information Technology and Libraries” Vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 34–43.
Blackstock M., Lea R., 2012, IoT mashups with the WoTKit . In: 3rd International Conference on the Internet of Things (IOT) , IEEE, pp. 159–166.
Bostock M., Ogievetsky V
The paper deals with the application of Geographic Information System software in cartographic data presentation in the field of historical data mining. Lists of soldiers buried in the I world war cemeteries near Jasło were used. The prepared database helped to create series of maps, mainly diagram maps, that serve as a useful statistical and demographic characteristics of the phenomena. The authors stressed advantages of the solution used and the usefulness of historical data in spatial database preparation process. The shortages of the GIS software itself were also pointed out, especially as long as cartographic editing and methodology principles are concerned.
, Heerlen, Netherlands. <https://www.ou.nl/Docs/Expertise/OTEC/Nieuws/icleps%20conferentie/Ayres.doc> (access 12.1.2017).
Cornwall B., Robinson A., 1966, Possibilities for computer animated films in cartography. “The Cartographic Journal” Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 79-82.
Dransch D., 1993, Kartographische Animation. In: Kartographie und Geo-Informationssysteme, Grundlagen, Entwicklungsstand und Trends. „Kartographische Schriften” 1. Bonn: Kirschbaum Verlag, pp. 3-15.
Gersmehl P.J., 1990, Choosing tools: nine metaphors of four
Geographic information systems (GIS) and their tools support the process of real estate trading. Of key importance is the ability to visualise information about real estate in the form of maps of average real estate transaction prices. The following study presents a methodology for mapping average real estate transaction prices using GIS. The map development process comprised three main stages. In the first stage, the input data was processed and statistically analysed. Official data came from the Register of Real Estate Prices and Values, and open data from the National Register of Boundaries. The second stage involved the visualization of the data in the form of maps of average apartment prices using the cartographic methods of choropleth maps and diagrams. The commercial tool ArcMap 10.3 and the free Quantum GIS software were used in the design of the maps of average real estate transaction prices, to check the options for using these types of programs. As a result, eight maps were designed presenting the average transaction prices for residential properties in the Warsaw district of Ursynów in 2015. The final stage was the analysis of the designed maps. The influence of the selection of the reference units on the visualization content, and the impact of combining cartographic presentation methods on the complexity of the presentation of real estate information, were also analysed.
Advanced terrain models are currently commonly used in many video/computers games. Professional GIS technologies, existing spatial datasets and cartographic methodology are more widely used in their development. This allows for achieving a realistic model of the world. On the other hand, the so-called game engines have very high capability of spatial data visualization. Preparing terrain models for the purpose of video games requires knowledge and experience of GIS specialists and cartographers, although it is also accessible for non-professionals. The authors point out commonness and variety of use of terrain models in video games and the existence of a series of ready, advanced tools and procedures of terrain model creating. Finally the authors describe the experiment of performing the process of data modeling for “Condor Soar Simulator”.
The subject of the article is reconstructing the routes of postal roads within the borders of the Lublin Voivodeship in the second half of the 18th century. The author has attempted to reconstruct the routes of postal roads, using the retrogression method and a cartographic research method with the use of GIS tools. For this purpose, manuscript cartographic and descriptive sources from the late 18th and 19th centuries were used. Cartographic material from the end of the 18th century in connection with descriptive sources constituted the basis for determining the existence of a postal connection. However, maps from the beginning of the 19th century constituted the basis for the reconstruction of the routes of postal roads. The obtained results allowed for the determination of the role of the Lublin Voivodeship in the old Polish communication system. The research has made us aware of the need for further in-depth work on communication in the pre--partition era (before 1795).