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Hydrocarbon exploration in The Netherlands has a chequered history from serendipitous oil shows via chance oil/ gas discoveries to finding the largest continental European oil field in 1943, followed by finding the largest gas field in the world in 1959. The present contribution traces the development of moderate to good porosity/permeability trends in depositional facies of Zechstein Stassfurt carbonates in a ‘gas play’ intermediate in significance between the above two plays but all in the northern part of The Netherlands. Various depositional facies in the Stassfurt carbonates were turned into ‘carbonate fabric units’ by diagenetic processes creating or occluding the porosity/permeability. This formed moderate to good gas reservoirs in barrier-shoal, open-marine shelf and proximal-slope carbonates in the subsurface of the province of Drenthe in the NE Netherlands. The diagenetic models forming these carbonate fabric units are linked to the variety of facies in a depositional model which shows explain and predicts the reservoir trends. Such depositional/diagenetic facies are ‘translated’ into characteristic petrophysical values recognisable on wire line logs in uncored wells, and in characteristic seismic expressions that show these trends in undrilled areas. This approach has been proven to be effective in delineating porosity trends, visualised by 3-D seismic in the Collendoornerveen field, and thus provides a new exploration ‘tool’ in hydrocarbon exploration .
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Predictive diagenetic clay-mineral distribution in siliciclastic rocks as a tool for identifying sequence boundaries in non-marine successions: the Coalspur Formation, west-central Alberta
The study of upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary fluvial deposits of the Coalspur Formation in the Foothills region of west-central Alberta reveals that the distribution of early authigenic kaolinite has a well-defined relation to the sequence stratigraphic framework. In this context, it has been observed that the kaolin mineral content increases in sandstones lying below subaerial unconformities, which mark the most significant stratigraphic hiatuses and hence the sequence boundaries in fully fluvial successions. The increased abundance of authigenic kaolinite immediately below sequence boundaries may have been caused by the infiltration of meteoric water during times of subaerial erosion, resulting in the dissolution of unstable minerals (e.g., micas and feldspar) and the formation of kaolinite and secondary porosity. It is therefore suggested that the change in clay mineral assemblages in the stratigraphic section depends in part on the position of the analyzed sandstone samples relative to the sequence boundaries. In a larger context, the method of using authigenic clays to delineate depositional sequences in non-marine successions needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, as the diagnostic early diagenetic minerals underlying the sequence boundary may change as a function of palaeoclimate and also as a function of late diagenetic processes.
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