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Consequences of Fiscal Adjustment and Public Finance Management. The Costs of Limiting the Fiscal Imbalance in Eurozone Countries

Abstract

This article focuses on the effects of corrections to the budgetary policy in eurozone economies. The goal of the text is to check if advancement in implementing modern tools of public management is helpful in the time of fiscal adjustment. We assume that the most important role of a performance approach in conducting fiscal policy is the ability of government to implement active policy meant as structural changes in the composition of public expenditures. In the case of the need to cut general levels of public spending, public sector managers who have knowledge of performance effects of public policies should be able to conduct fiscal adjustment in such a way as to minimise negative outcomes of spending correction on society. The structure of the text is as follows. First, we present some insights on the economic effects of fiscal adjustment. Then, we discuss the concept of performance management presented in the theory and policy agendas of international institutions such as the European Union or the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). Finally, we present the result of an empirical exercise that is designed to combine the level of advancement in implementing performance budgeting (PB) and the social cost of fiscal adjustment in eurozone economies. The most important finding of the research is that PB tools seem to have very limited usefulness in a time of fiscal adjustment. There is no statistical evidence that countries advanced in utilisation of PB tools conduct more active fiscal policy – approach of cutting all expenditures across the border by given percentage rather than looking at priorities and social outcomes of fiscal adjustment dominates in all cases.

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Budget transparency innovation in the Czech local government

., & Grimes, J. M. (2010). Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies. Government information quarterly , 27(3), 264-271. Bovens, M. (2007). Analysing and assessing accountability: a conceptual framework1. European law journal , 13(4), 447-468. Brendlová, E. (2011) Podívejte se on-line: ceny všeho, co platí magistrát. Mladá fronta Dnes 14.12.2011, p. 2. Cuadrado-Ballesteros, B. et al. (2017). The Role of Media Pressure in Promoting Transparency of Local Government

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Benchmarking the financial performance of local councils in Ireland

: Towards an easy-to-use assessment tool for smaller cities. Government Finance Review, 9 (6), 21–6. Brown, K. W. (1996). Trends in key ratios using the GFOA financial indicators database 1989–1993. Government Finance Review, 12 (6), 30–4. Brusca, I., & Montesinos, V. (2006). Are citizens significant users of government financial information? Public Money and Management, 26 (4), 205–9. Cabaleiro, R., Buch, E., & Vaamonde, A. (2013). Developing a method to assessing the municipal financial health. American Review of Public Administration, 43 (6

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Parameters for the Assessment of the Impact of Internationalisation Policy on Quality in Higher Education and its Influence on the Development of Society: The Lithuanian Case

Abstract

The article discusses the envisaged outcomes of internationalisation policy of higher education in the context of the European Higher Education Area, and the effect of internationalisation policy on quality in higher education. In Lithuania, internationalisation of higher education is supported by large amounts of public finance, in the hope that internationalisation will provide added value to the quality of higher education. However, there are no tools for collecting evidence of whether that investment is properly used. The research question of the study is how the internationalisation policy impact on quality in higher education and its influence on wider society may be measured in a particular national context. The article presents exploratory research findings based on an extensive literature review and views of policymakers, higher education administrators and academics evaluated as a set of indicators and criteria to be used in assessing the impact of internationalisation policy on quality in higher education and its influence on wider society.

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The potential for public value frameworks in Northern Ireland and Ireland

Abstract

The publication of a far-reaching public value framework for central government in the UK presents an opportunity to consider how this or a similar framework could be a useful tool for public management in Ireland and Northern Ireland. The concept of public value represents an evolution beyond some of the weaknesses of New Public Management, as it goes further to measure the holistic public benefit compared with pure monetary valuation. Examination of the current programmes for government in Ireland and Northern Ireland leads to the conclusion that a public value framework could be useful to advance their agendas. Lessons from social value legislation in England, Scotland and Wales indicate how a more comprehensive public value framework might be implemented in Northern Ireland and Ireland.

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The Facebook Phenomenon for Collaborative Learning for University Studies

Abstract

This article defines the shift in the concept and conditions of collaborative learning for university studies using the social networking tool Facebook and discusses the collaborative learning effect in terms of using Open Educational Resources (OER), creating learning artefacts and new generic competence development. In order to evaluate students’ learning through collaboration in Facebook, qualitative research method and survey of generic competencies based on the Tuning project framework (2003) were used. The data was collected through focus group interviews and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The qualitative research method was chosen because it provides information of how students collaborate and what experience they gained during the activities. First, Facebook online groups have been identified at three different levels at VMU. The Facebook first level group was the social networking of Vytautas Magnus University’s students and academic staff. The second level group was created for the department dealing with social sciences, and is called “Department of Social Science”. The third level group is “Education Service Management” within the Department of Education. The research was done at the third level group with the students of the “Education Service Management” study programme. As research results show, Facebook as a social network has been changing communication between students, by facilitating the exchange of information and knowledge. The research analyses Facebook in the context of undergraduate university studies, based upon the experience of Vytautas Magnus University (VMU) for using Facebook for university studies. It could be concluded that learning is about developing capabilities to think and to act. Learners using social networking tools for collaborative learning, act, provide feedback and peer-review, asses and rate information. Openness is based on the idea that knowledge is disseminated and shared freely for the benefit of society as a whole. University students collaborate online and learn by using and exchanging OER, as well as developing them as the artefacts of online collaborative learning. They influence task design by creating “educational resources” themselves.

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The Peculiarities of the Use of Information Communication Technologies in Foreign Language Teaching/Learning Process

Abstract

In our contemporary society the use of Information and Communications Technologies is an inseperable part of everyday life. Information and Communications Technologies can be of great benefit in learning foreign languages for both the learner and the teacher alike. As in every change that tends to happen gradually yet unnoticeably, there are the advantages and the downsides that cannot be overlooked nor ignored. Information and Communications Technologies when incorporated in education also unavoidably has these dichotomous variables. What are these variables in the implementation of Information and Communications Technologies in education and do the positive factors outweigh the negative ones? The object of the research is the use of information communication technologies in foreign language lessons. The aim of the research is to reveal the peculiarities of using information communication technologies in the teaching of foreign languages. Research questions in this study are the following: What peculiarities of using information communication technologies arise in the process of teaching foreign languages in high school classes? How is the use of information communication technologies influenced by the age of the learners? What Information Communication Technologies are used in foreign language lessons? Findings showed that the self-perception, help to clients, professional ethics, trust are the components of professional responsibilities in the daily professional practices of social workers and social pedagogues. Realizing and accepting the fact that Information and Communications Technologies and Information Technology in general have become a part of our everyday life, one cannot ignore the importance of it in the field of education. Systematic evaluation of the implementation of Information and Communications Technologies in education in order to assure its effectiveness as a tool that acts as an aid for not only the pupils but also the teachers should become a normal part of the educational system. It should be viewed as a means of improving the lesson and as a means of support for those pupils who are in serious need of it.

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Does the Self-employment Policy Reduce Unemployment and Increase Employment? Empirical Evidence from the Czech Regions

Abstract

Empirical evidence related to the effectivity and outcomes of the self-employment programmes in the Central and Eastern Europe is still very rare, despite the important role of entrepreneurship in the economic development of post-communist economies. The main purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the impact of self-employment subsidy for unemployed in the Czech NUTS 3 regions for the period of years 2012–2015 to provide policy makers supportive material useful for policy adjustments. The study applies quantitative research framework, which is based on the construction of econometric models. Estimated regression models with region fixed effects supported the negative association between the amount of supported self-employed and unemployment rates in the Czech regions. This finding is theoretically framed by the theory of necessity entrepreneurship. Positive spillover of the programme (‘a double dividend’), was econometrically tested on the regional employment rates. Obtained estimates found that there is a positive contemporaneous relationship (weakly significant) between the number of supported self-employed and the employment rates but not in the lag. Analysis of the costs revealed that the costs of self-employment programme are not that high, if one takes into account the alternative costs of unemployment benefits paid to the unemployed and social insurance paid back to the state by the newly established self-employed. Therefore, this tool of active labour market policy has a potential of wider usage. Nevertheless, the applied empirical strategy was based on the regional level and has its limitations. Provided results need to be interpreted cautiously, without any causal inference, because the true outcomes of the programme could be analysed only on the level of supported individuals. Future research should therefore challenge the effectiveness of the start-up subsidy programmes in the Czech Republic on the level of individuals, with focus on the survival rates of subsidized businesses and incomes of their formerly unemployed owners.

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From Knowledge Utilization to Building Knowledge Networks

. Freeman, R. and Sturdy, S. (eds.) (2014) Knowledge in policy: embodied, inscribed, enacted. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Sidney, M.S. (2007) Policy formulation: design and tools. In: F. Fischer, G. J. Miller and M.S. Sidney (eds.): Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Politics, and Methods. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 79-87. Stone, D. (2001). Think tanks, global lesson-drawing and networking social policy ideas. Global Social Policy, 1(3), 338-360. Weiss, C. H. (1979). The many meanings of knowledge

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Court-directed mediation in the Irish High Court: Compelling voluntary processes

References Barniville, D. (2013). Tools of attack and defence in commercial litigation. Retrieved from http://masonhayescurran.newsweaver.ie/mhctax/17ok2i 9g6vy [11 January 2017]. Coulter, C. (2007). Family law reporting pilot project: Report to the board of the Courts Service. Retrieved from http://www.courts.ie/Courts.ie/library3.nsf/(WebFiles)/C4FA6C02C7B13A428025738400521CE9/$FILE/Report%20to%20the%20Board%20of%20the%20Courts%20Service.pdf [11 January 2017]. Courts Service. (2016, September 22). Notices 22

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