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Agritourism as a type of niche tourism is a complex and softly defined phaenomenon. The demands for fast and integrated decision regarding agritourism and its interconnections with environment, economy (investments, traffic) and social factors (tourists) is urgent. Many different methodologies and methods master softly structured questions and dilemmas with global and local properties. Here we present methods of systems thinking and system dynamics, which were first brought into force in the educational and training area in the form of different computer simulations and later as tools for decision-making and organisational re-engineering. We develop system dynamics models in order to present accuracy of methodology. These models are essentially simple and can serve only as describers of the activity of basic mutual influences among variables. We will pay the attention to the methodology for parameter model values determination and the so-called mental model. This one is the basis of causal connections among model variables. At the end, we restore a connection between qualitative and quantitative models in frame of system dynamics.
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Land administration and land consolidation are two pillars of the Austrian land management sharing a long tradition and duties defined by the constitution. Land administration supports measures of land consolidation with cadastre data, land registry data and other geo–technical data. New methods and instruments of geodata assessment provides a more detailed information about land and its changes. The geo–products are contributing to an improved process efficiency of land consolidation authorities. In addition, the role of land consolidation changed from an instrument to improve farming structures to a multifunctional tool of land management.
The paper aims at overview of the history and major contents of the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organization. Special attention is paid to implications of the Agreement for agricultural and trade policies in developing countries, including Russia, recently accessed the WTO. The differential treatment that developing countries receive under the agreement is investigated. The paper includes an overview of the recently adopted State Program of the Russian Federation for Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets in 2013-2020. The research considers four applications of the given State Program: compliance with WTO requirements, state support of agriculture, provision of food security, and ensurance of sustainable rural development. The paper results in the conclusion that state policies in the sphere of rural development have to evolve beyond the traditional, sector-based model, with its almost exclusive focus on agriculture. Contemporary set of tools to ensure sustainable rural development should be based on the multi-sectoral strategies and programs that identify and better exploit the development potential of rural area through a variety of factors: national food security, agricultural production, liberalization of trade and foreign economic activities, support of local producers and rural households, rural infrastructure, environmental and recreational potential.
Currently the land tax causes difficulties to the managers of agricultural and forest land as it does not fulfill its historical function. Stagnant market for agricultural products together with damages caused by climate changes (floods or droughts) brings complications to the land managers by decreasing their profit. The research focuses on an analysis of land tax in Central Europe and its functioning as a municipal economic tool taking into account environmental protection and usage of nonrenewable resources. The article offers suggestions for municipalities with regard to changes in land taxation which are derived from their influence on agricultural and forest land usage.
Agriculture and environment are among others the most important priorities of the European Union. Agriculture is strongly influenced by the state of the environment, including water resources. In addition to many other policies, the EU water policy is crucial for the sustainable development of rural areas. Directives are the main tools for implementation of water policy. This article contains an overview of the directives on aspects of quality and quantity of water resources. Within the paper three most important agricultural areas of the Directive are characterized: the Water Framework Directive, the Floods Directive and the Nitrates Directive. Presented mandatory EU action aimed at their implementation and the problems associated with it. Current proposals for changes in the EU water policy are described.
Barbara Roszkowska-Mądra, Renata Przygodzka and Adam Sadowski
The aim of this paper was to analyze reasons and a range of changes in agricultural land areas due to allocation them for non-agricultural purposes across a period of 1990-2015 in Poland. This phenomena has not been sufficiently considered till now. Lack of this knowledge does not allow effective reduction of the decline of agricultural land by appropriate legislation and administrative action, especially on urban areas. In Poland, a significant proportion of agricultural land is allocated annually for non-agricultural purposes, which is connected with their permanent withdrawal from agricultural production. The permanent decline in the area of agricultural land in the country has been observed since the beginning of the systemic transformation. The dominant direction of the land withdrawal for non-agricultural purposes is their allocation to housing construction. In 1995 the Law on the protection of agricultural and forest land was introduced. This law includes strengthened economic tools for the protection of agricultural land in the form of mandatory charges for the withdrawal of agricultural land showing the best soil quality. This has led to a significant reduction in agricultural land use withdrawal. However, accelerated regional development following the accession of Poland to the EU and, then, the need to expand technical infrastructure resulted in several amendments to the 1995 Act, significantly weakened the protection of agricultural and forest land. It seems that the land as the unrepeatable good should be strictly covered by more respect and protection than ever before, especially in areas with the highest production value.
Stanislav Simin, Simonida Đurić, Ljiljana Kuruca, Timea Hajnal-Jafari, Dragana Stamenov and Vesna Lalošević
Gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep are one of major constraints in grazing production systems worldwide. Control is commonly achieved using anthelmintics, but global occurrence of anthelmintic resistance to different drugs and the emergence of multi-resistant GIN species seriously limit the efficiency of their use. Therefore, integrated parasite management is widely recommended, with nematophagous fungi as one of control tools. Duddingtonia flagrans is one of the most used species, with various effect of different isolates. In previously performed coproculture assay, we showed low efficacy of D. flagrans MUCL 9827 against infective larvae (L3) of sheep GIN. The aim of current experiment was to reevaluate its nematophagous potential, using the medium where direct interaction between the fungus and L3 could be observed. Nematophagous activity was tested on 2% water agar with addition of chloramphenicol on three series of plates seeded with 500 and 1000 chlamidospores and agar blocks with 7 days old mycelium. At Days 0 and 5, 500 L3 of sheep GIN were added to test the trapping activity. The cultures, including control plates with only L3, were incubated at 25°C for 10 days, followed by evaluation of their number and reduction percentage. Nematophagous activity of D. flagrans MUCL 9827 against L3 was clearly demonstrated. However, the overall efficacy was poor since trapping was observed only in one out of nine plates containing fungal material. Potential reasons for such poor performance of the isolate of fungal species, otherwise known as successful in trapping animal parasitic nematodes, are discussed.