A changing economic environment and growing requirements of stakeholders have made it necessary to develop new achievement measurement methods. The article discusses and compares several performance measurement tools and methods, such as: the Balanced Scorecard, Tableau de bord, Skandia Navigator, Intangible Assets Monitor, German Scorecard, Business Excellence Model, Dutch system of performance management, Performance Prism and the EFQM Excellence Model. They are the most popular among both theoreticians and practitioners in this field.
In highly developed countries, research in the field of bankruptcy risk prediction has been conducted for many years. For example, in the United States, which can be considered a pioneering country, the first publications appeared in the early twentieth century. In Poland, due to political and economic reasons, the interest in this issue dates back to the early 1990s. For this reason, this publication attempts to answer the following questions: 1) What is the level of advancement of the research into predicting bankruptcies of enterprises in Poland? 2) How does it compare to worldwide trends? Therefore, the main aim of this study is to present and evaluate the scientific achievements of Polish authors in the field of corporate bankruptcy prediction and compare them to global trends. Literature analysis was adopted as the research method and shows that initially in Poland only very simple tools were used to assess the risk of bankruptcy of enterprises. With time, however, advanced methods began to be introduced and new models included non-financial variables. Also, research on the selection of the samples was conducted. Currently, the level of research and applied tools do not differ from those used in highly developed countries.
Myanmar has been undergoing a process of post-socialist systemic transformation. During the reform period, its authorities used policy and institutional solutions of the East Asian development model in its post-socialist version, creating foundations for the post-socialist developmental state (PSDS).
The concept of the PSDS combines features of a developmental state (DS) and systemic transformation from central planning to market. A developmental state (DS) is considered to be an ideological and conceptual basis for the state’s economic policy and institutional and systemic arrangements that resulted in spectacular developmental achievements of some of the East Asian economies in the second half of the 20th century. Post-socialist transformation is considered the most multi-layered and complicated process of systemic reformulation, which took place at the end of the 20th and the beginning of 21st centuries.
The article describes the process of building a PSDS in Myanmar. In economic policy, the authorities have focused on the industrialisation through the development of an export production base. Nevertheless, access to the internal market has often been restricted for foreign entities. Planning through a state planning agency remains a key tool in the formulation of a development strategy. In addition, systemic reforms have been gradual rather than radical (a shock therapy).
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Marcouiller, D.W., Prey, J., Scott, I. (2009). The Regional Supply of Outdoor Recreation Resources: Demonstrating the Use of Location Quotients as a Management Tool. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 4(27).
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Luci-Greulich, A., Thévenon, O. (2013). The Impact of Family Policies on Fertility Trends in Developed Countries. European Journal of Population, 29(2), 387-416.
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social, economic and environmental goals, which have been transformed into specific, numerically expressed tasks ( Harańczyk, 2010 ). It is the main instrument for financing current tasks as well as financing development tasks ( Opałka, 2013 ), including investment activities. The self-government responsible for the development of territorial units, however, has limited possibilities of direct impact on the economic sphere. Investments are an important tool at the disposal of local governments, enabling indirect stimulation of the economic sphere. They constitute a
; Kenix 2007 ; Kang and Norton 2004 ; Naudé, Froneman and Atwood 2004 ).
The results of these studies have indicated that nonprofit organisations only sporadically use websites as strategic, interactive stakeholder engagement tools. This may be due to many reasons, such as the lack of qualified staff, who are experts in creating interactive websites. The arrival of social networking sites such as the very popular Facebook and Twitter have eliminated this excuse. Therefore, public relations practitioners should consider this communication channel as an important tool
numbers. However, describing reality with numerical values may not be sufficient in the modelling of many phenomena. The main reasons for this stem from the fact that measurements, evaluations or ratings have a degree of uncertainty and imprecision. The uncertainty of measurement results, among other things, from the so-called 'human error' or from the imperfection of measuring instruments. Also, estimations or evaluations made by experts are often subjective and can be perceived by others in various ways. This necessitates a return to the mathematical tools that allow
Andrzej Cieślik, Jan Jakub Michałek and Iryna Gauger
98 Chicago and London University of Chicago Press
 Ackerberg D., Benkard C.L., Berry S., and Pakes A. (2007), Econometric Tools for Analyzing Market Outcomes, In Handbook of Econometrics, Volume 6A ed. James J. Heckman and Edward E. Leamer, pp. 4171–276. Elsevier, North-Holland.
Ackerberg D. Benkard C.L. Berry S. Pakes A. 2007 Econometric Tools for Analyzing Market Outcomes Handbook of Econometrics, Volume 6A James J. Heckman Edward E. Leamer 4171 276 Elsevier North-Holland
 Asplund M., and Nocke V. (2006), Firm
from the extant literature is that the type of valuation method can moderate the hypothetical bias; choice-based elicitation methods, in particular, may reduce it ( Murphy, Allen, Stevens, & Weatherhead, 2005 ).
Several studies have also indicated that a number of specific tools are able to reduce hypothetical bias. These include both cheap talk ( Doyon, Saulais, Ruffieux, & Bweli, 2015 ; List, 2001 ) and real talk ( Alfnes, Yue, & Jensen, 2010 ), as well as various calibration techniques. Some researchers have also found that the usage of student samples may