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Australian Wooden Weapons and Tools from the J. V. Daneš Collection in the Náprstek Museum

Abstract

J. V. Daneš’s collection of the National Museum – Náprstek Museum includes over 700 ethnographic objects from the entire Pacific area. The collection is mostly unpublished, and some of the objects never had their provenience established. The present paper introduces 46 indigenous wooden weapons – clubs and sticks, boomerangs, spears, shields and spear throwers – from Australia.

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The Crown of the Divine Child in the Meroitic Kingdom. A Typological Study

Abstract

The crown of the divine child was one of the headdresses that transferred from Egypt to the Meroitic Kingdom. It was integrated in the Egyptian decoration program in the early Ptolemaic time. The first king of Meroe to use this crown in the decoration of the Lion Temple in Musawwarat es-Sufra was Arnekhamani (235-218 BCE). It also appeared later in the sanctuaries of his successors Arkamani II (218-200 BCE) and Adikhalamani (ca. 200-190 BCE) in Dakka and Debod. The Egyptians presented it as the headdress of child gods or the king. In the Kingdom of Meroe the crown was more like a tool to depict the fully legitimised king before he faced the main deity of the sanctuary. To show this the Meroitic artists changed its iconography in such a way that the primarily Egyptian focus on the aspects of youth and rebirth withdrew into the background so that the elements of cosmic, royal and divine legitimacy became the centre of attention. Even if the usage and parts of the iconography were different, the overall meaning remained the same. It was a headdress that combined all elements of the cosmos as well as of royal and divine power.

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Shepespuptah Idu According to Evidence from his Rock-Cut Tomb at Abusir South

Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and Phrases of the Old Kingdom . British Archaeological Reports International Series 866. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000. LOVEJOY, C. Owen – MEINDL, Richard S. – PRYZBECK, Thomas R. – MENSFORTH, Robert P. Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: a new method for the determination of adult skeletal age at death. Am J Phys Anthropol 68/1, 1985, pp. 15–28. MURAIL, Pascal – BRŮŽEK, Jaroslav – HOUËT, Francis – CUNHA, Eugenia. DSP: A tool for probabilistic sex diagnosis using worldwide variability in hip

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Translation memory and computer assisted translation tool for medieval texts

Abstract

Translation memories (TMs), as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT) tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available), and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

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Thibault and Science I. Measure, Distances and Proportions in the Circle

Abstract

In this paper we investigate the basic mathematical and philosophical tool of Gérard Thibault d’Anvers, the Circle. One of our main goals was to describe the Circle with coordinate geometry, and to estimate the rate of accuracy of his work. Furthermore, we also wanted to test the statements made by Thibault in his fencing manual, Academy of the Sword [Thibault, 1630; Greer, 2005]. To do this, we compared his observations and calculations with the results of available modern day and historical anthropometrical data sets. Based on our results, we also want to give some practical information about Thibault system for the fencers who study his art in our time.

Open access