of water quality of river Ravi at Madhopur (India).Global J Environ Sci. 2009;8(1):49-57.
 Hurley T, Sadiq R, Mazumder A. Adaptation and evaluation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for use as an effective tool to characterize drinking source water quality. Water Res. 2012;46(11):3544-3552. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.03.061.
 Kahler-Royer CA. A water quality index devised for the Des Moines River in Central IOWA. IOWA State University. Master of Science thesis - Supervised by
Justyna Rybak, Izabela Spówka, Anna Zwoździak, Magdalena Fortuna and Krystyna Trzepla-Nabagło
The study aims at evaluating whether webs reflect the level of air pollution measured with conventional methods. Webs of species Malthonica silvestris (l. KOCH, 1872) (Araneae: Agelenidae) were sampled. Samples were analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Zn) content. According webs analyses and classic measurements three traffic-oriented sites in Wroclaw (South-West Poland) showed significantly higher mean concentrations of heavy metals than two other sites situated in quieter, low traffic areas. A very strong significant positive correlation was revealed among average concentrations of Zn and Pb associated with fine particulate matter of atmospheric aerosol (PM1) and webs. We also observed a very strong significant positive correlation among Zn and Pb concentrations on webs and PM2.5. Any significant correlation among PM-emission fractions 2.5 and 10 and associated heavy metals and dust deposited on spider webs was not observed. Although spider webs proved useful indicators of environmental pollution the obtained results suggest that this tool should be used to evaluate the emission of heavy metals in the similar way as other bioindicators such as mosses and lichens are commonly used. The measured concentrations on webs do not reflect results obtained with classic methods. We conclude that spider webs are good for bioindication of road traffic emissions, they could be even more reliable compared to use of some other bioindicators whose activity is often limited by the lack of water and sun.
Katarína Kráľová, Josef Jampílek and Ivan Ostrovský
Metabolomics - Useful Tool for Study of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stresses
Abiotic stresses are produced by inappropriate levels of physical components of the environment and cause plant injury through unique mechanisms that result in specific responses. Metabolomics is a relatively new approach aimed at improved understanding of metabolic networks and the subsequent biochemical composition of plants and other biological organisms. The paper is focused on the use of metabolomics, metabolic profiling and metabolic fingerprinting to study plant responses to some environmental stresses (eg elevated temperature, chilling and freezing, drought, high salinity, UV radiation, high ozone levels, nutrient deficiency, oxidative stress, herbicides and heavy metals). Attention is also devoted to the effects of some environmental factors on plants such as high or low levels of CO2 or different levels of irradiance. Alterations of plants metabolites due to multiple abiotic stresses (drought-heat, drought-salinity, elevated CO2-salinity) are analysed as well. In addition, metabolomic approach to study plant responses to some artificial abiotic stresses, mechanical stress or pulsed electric field-induced stress is discussed. The most important analytical methods applied in metabolomics are presented and perspectives of metabolomics exploitation in the future are outlined, too.
Franciszek Pistelok, Alina Pohl, Tomasz Stuczyński and Bogusław Wiera
Passos FJ, Sebastião Brandão SC, Rodrigues CG. Braz Arch Biol Technol. 2004;47(3):399-405. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132004000300010.
 Deininger R, Lee J. Field Anal Chem Technol. 2001;5(4):185-189. DOI: 10.1002/fact.1020.
 Deininger R, Lee J. Rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water. In: Omelchenko A, Pivovarov AA, Swindall WJ, editors. Modern Tools and Methods of Water Treatment for Improving Living Standards. Netherlands: Springer; 2005. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F1-4020-3116-5_4#page-1 .
 Deininger R, Lee J, Clark R
Małgorzata Gorzel, Ryszard Kornijów and Edyta Buczyńska
-deck imputation of missing data. Ecol Indic. 2012; 17:108-119. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.04.023.
 Turley MD, Bilotta GS, Extence CA, Brazier RE. Evaluation of a fine sediment biomonitoring tool across a wide range of temperate rivers and streams. Freshwater Biol. 2014;59(11):2268-2277 DOI: 10.1111/fwb.12429.
 Nichols SJ, Barmuta LA, Chessman BC, Davies PE, Dyer FJ, Harrison ET, et al. The imperative need for nationally coordinated bioassessment of rivers and streams. Mar Freshwater Res. 2017;68(4):599-613. DOI: 10.1071/mf15329.
 Beavan L, Sadler J
One of the essential needs for retention reservoirs is to reduce the volume of wastewater flows in sewer systems. Their main advantage is the potential to increase retention in the system, which in turn improves hydraulic safety by reducing the risk of node flooding and the emergence of the phenomenon of “urban flooding”. The increasingly common use of retention reservoirs, the observed changes in the climate and the development of dedicated software tools necessitate the updating of the methods used to dimension retention reservoirs. So far, the best known procedures in this regard involve the application of analytical formulas and tools in the hydrodynamic modelling of current sewage systems. In each case the basis for the retention facility design is the evaluation of rainfall in terms of the probability of occurrence and duration that would result in a critical rainwater flow condition in the sewer system in order to define the required reservoir retention capacity. The purpose of this paper is to analyse of the feasibility of applying artificial neural networks in the preliminary estimation of the duration of critical rainfalls. Such an application of these networks is essential to the process of hydrodynamic modelling of the system and to determining the required retention capacity of the reservoir. The study used an artificial neural network model typically used as part of planning processes, as well as the Statistica software suite.
Wael S. El-Tohamy, Samar N. ABDEL-Baki, Nagwa E. Abdel-Aziz and Abdel-Aziz A. Khidr
The objective of this study is to reveal the spatial and temporal variations of surface water quality in this part of the River Nile with respect to heavy metals pioneerution. Seventeen parameters in total were monitored at seven sites on a monthly basis from October 2013 to September 2014. The dataset was treated using the tools of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Cluster analysis showed three different groups of similarity between the sampling sites reflecting the variability in physicochemical characteristics and pollution levels of the study area. Six PCs factors were identified as responsible for the data structure explaining 91 % of the total variance. These were eutrophication factor (23.2 %), physicochemical factor (20.6 %), nutrients (16.3 %) and three additional factors, affected by alkalinity and heavy metals, recorded variance less than 15 % each. Also, the heavy metals pollution index (HPI) revealed that most of the calculated values were below the critical index limit of 100. However, two higher values (124.89 and 133.11) were calculated at sites V and VI during summer due to the temperature and increased run-off in the river system.
Elżbieta Wołejko, Urszula Wydro and Tadeusz Łoboda
The aim of this paper was to present possibilities of using different substrates to assist the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals, pesticides and other substances. Today's bioengineering offers many solutions that enable the effective conduct of biological remediation, including both biostimulation and bioaugmentation. For this purpose, they are used to enrich various organic substances, sorbents, microbiological and enzymatic preparations, chemical substances of natural origin or nanoparticles. The use of genetic engineering as a tool to obtain microorganisms and plants capable of efficient degradation of pollutants may cause the risks that entails the introduction of transgenic plants and microorganisms into the environment. In order to determine the efficacy and possible effects of the various bioremediation techniques, it is required to conduct many studies and projects on a larger scale than only in the laboratory. Furthermore, it should be emphasized that bioremediation involves interdisciplinary issues and therefore, there is a need to combine knowledge from different disciplines, such as: microbiology, biochemistry, ecology, environmental engineering and process engineering.
Poland is under threat of potential accidents in nuclear power plants located in its close vicinity, in almost all neighboring countries. Moreover, there are plans to establish a new nuclear power plant in Polish coast. In this paper the analysis of atmospheric transport of radioactive material released during a potential accident in the future nuclear power plant is presented. In the first part of study transport of radioactivity as seen from the long time perspective is analyzed. This involves trajectory analysis as a tool for describing the statistics of air pollution transport pattern and screening the meteorological situations for episode studies. Large sets of meteorological data for selected episodes were stored as a result of this process. Estimation of risk includes both analysis of the consequences and probability analysis of an occurrence of such situation. Episodes then were comprehensively studied in the second phase of the study, using the Eulerian dispersion model for simulation of atmospheric transport of pollutants. This study has proven that the time needed for reaction in case of (hypothetical) accident is enormously short.
Determining the value of a half-effective or half-life concentration or dose of toxicant is the main purpose of acute toxicity studies, and this is also the most commonly used value in the toxicity characteristics of substances. By conducting tests that meet the criteria and requirements for the determination of acute toxicity, due to the use of appropriate mathematical tools and concentrations resulting in complete lethal effects in the studied groups, considerably more important values can be achieved, which give a possibility for the analysis of the entire process’s dynamics, as well as determining the threshold values of the effect time and toxicant concentration. This was the purpose of our research, in which the research species were Daphnia magna and Cypris pubera. The effect of the conducted research allowed to determine and compare the two toxicants: ammonium and copper(II) ions by it’s: concentration limit values (Cth), internal toxicity of the receptor-ligand complex (α), apparent, constant disintegration of this complex (Kapp) and different time values of the effect (Tt, Tin, MLT), which, along with concentration, is equally important determinant of the development of a toxic effect.