J. V. Daneš’s collection of the National Museum – Náprstek Museum includes over 700 ethnographic objects from the entire Pacific area. The collection is mostly unpublished, and some of the objects never had their provenience established. The present paper introduces 46 indigenous wooden weapons – clubs and sticks, boomerangs, spears, shields and spear throwers – from Australia.
The crown of the divine child was one of the headdresses that transferred from Egypt to the Meroitic Kingdom. It was integrated in the Egyptian decoration program in the early Ptolemaic time. The first king of Meroe to use this crown in the decoration of the Lion Temple in Musawwarat es-Sufra was Arnekhamani (235-218 BCE). It also appeared later in the sanctuaries of his successors Arkamani II (218-200 BCE) and Adikhalamani (ca. 200-190 BCE) in Dakka and Debod. The Egyptians presented it as the headdress of child gods or the king. In the Kingdom of Meroe the crown was more like a tool to depict the fully legitimised king before he faced the main deity of the sanctuary. To show this the Meroitic artists changed its iconography in such a way that the primarily Egyptian focus on the aspects of youth and rebirth withdrew into the background so that the elements of cosmic, royal and divine legitimacy became the centre of attention. Even if the usage and parts of the iconography were different, the overall meaning remained the same. It was a headdress that combined all elements of the cosmos as well as of royal and divine power.
Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and Phrases of the Old Kingdom . British Archaeological Reports International Series 866. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000.
LOVEJOY, C. Owen – MEINDL, Richard S. – PRYZBECK, Thomas R. – MENSFORTH, Robert P. Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: a new method for the determination of adult skeletal age at death. Am J Phys Anthropol 68/1, 1985, pp. 15–28.
MURAIL, Pascal – BRŮŽEK, Jaroslav – HOUËT, Francis – CUNHA, Eugenia. DSP: A tool for probabilistic sex diagnosis using worldwide variability in hip
The issues involved with the economic aspects of cultural institutions, their economic impact, and the measurement of their performance has basically only been given systematic attention during the past few years. Traditionally performance assessments are primarily connected with entrepreneurial subjects, which is why this assessment has been applied primarily to financial metrics. During the 1990’s, this issue started to be examined from a new perspective. The question arose as to whether it is realistic to restrict performance measurement only to financial indicators. More and more, the opinion began to spread that for measurement to be truly useful, it must also focus on nonfinancial indicators. Gradually this idea started to be promoted, primarily in the cultural and the artistic non-profit areas and also that it is necessary to pay the requisite attention to this topic. Several studies have been made and there have also been other kinds of attempts to measure their performance; the root of the problem is that in Czech museums there is no longer a single agreed-upon method for measuring performance. This study is focused on the use of the Balanced Scorecard method and on its application in the museum world and also on its use as a tool for managing, monitoring and planning.
Modern technology affects the development of the humanities, including the most traditional of the disciplines such as classical archaeology. We are looking for an answer to the question of whether high-tech could completely replace the basic tools without which we would not even imagine archaeology. Could pencil and paper completely disappear from the trench? We tested the principles regarding paperless archaeology on the exemplary research of the deserted Castrum Novum Roman Colony located in central Italy. The colony was founded in the 3rd century BC and disappeared in the 5th century AD. The discovery of the city occurred in the 18th century when the Pope decided to support the first excavations. Especially unique findings of sculptures became a feature of the Vatican Museums. After that the city was again forgotten. Only in the second half of the 20th century, have we managed to re-locate Castrum Novum. This resulted in the need for modern systematic archaeological research. Currently an extraordinary collaboration is bringing interesting discoveries and new perspectives for the Italian, the French and the Czech archaeologists.
In this text, I describe a specific way of addressing the past in video games which are set in historical times but at the same time deliberately undermine the facticity of their virtual worlds. By grounding my argument in analyses of two blockbuster productions—Assassin’s Creed (Ubisoft, 2007) and Call of Duty: Black Ops (Activision, 2010)—I introduce and define the notion of “simulational realism”. Both games belong to best-selling franchises and share an interesting set of features: they relate to historical places, events, and figures, establish counter-factual narratives based around conspiracy theories, and—most importantly—display many formal similarities. Like most AAA games, Assassin’s Creed and Black Ops intend to immerse the player in the virtual reality and, for this purpose, they naturalize their interfaces as integral elements of reality. However, in the process of naturalizing simulation, objectivity of the past becomes unthinkable.
In my considerations, I situate this problem in two contexts: 1) of a cultural and epistemic shift in perceiving reality which was influenced by dissemination of digital technologies; 2) Vilém Flusser’s prognosis on the effects of computation on human knowledge. According to Flusser’s theory of communication, history—as a specific kind of human knowledge—emerged out of writing that was always linear and referential. Consequently, the crisis of literary culture resulted in the emergence of new aesthetics and forms of representations which—given their digital origin—dictate new ways of understanding reality. As history is now being substituted by timeless post-history, aesthetic conventions of realism are also transformed and replaced by digital equivalents.
Following Flusser’s theory, I assert that we should reflect on the epistemological consequences of presenting the past as simulation, especially if we consider the belief shared by many players that games like Assassin’s Creed can be great tools for learning history. I find such statements problematic, if we consider that the historical discourse, grounded on fact, is completely incompatible with the aesthetics of sim-realism which evokes no illusion of objective reality.
, Alar, and Dieter Eckstein, “Development of a tree-ring chronology of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for Estonia as a dating tool and climatic proxy.” Baltic Forestry 9 (2) (2003): 76-82.
“Lapista löytyi ennätysvanha mänty,” Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla). 2007.08.06, acessed May 3, 2017, http://www.metla.fi/tiedotteet/2007/2007-08-06-vanhin-puu.htm.
Levandauskas, Vytautas, “Rotušė.“ In Kauno architektūra, ed. Algė Jankevičienė. Vilnius: Mokslas, 1991.257-264.
Levandauskas, Vytautas, “Šv. Pranciškaus
Since the mid-19th century until the 1930s, the Czech physical education and the scout movements formed a platform for the propagation of a specific somatology and health science discourse connected with the issues of morality, national awareness and political views. They strived to create an integral Czech personality subject to the imperative of the bourgeois values and norms. The stress was on the set of rules, diligence, commitment to the benefit of the nation, moderation, temperance, and obedience, while laziness and conspicuous revelry were, in this context, condemned. Disobedience, immorality and improper use of powers were perceived as a real threat to the national community and later to the so-called First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938). Hence, activities of both the physical education organisations and the Scout Movement, became a form of national defence against harmful influences. As a result of their effort to impact the society as a whole, these activities became a mobilization tool which promoted both physical and moral norms: the cultivation of the body became a moral duty for all members of the nation. The disapproval, based on political and generational reasons, towards the bourgeois morality hegemony and later, of the state paternalism (for instance by the non-organised scout-tramps), resulted in attempts to condemn all those who refused the social dictate and the state’s control.