Performance Indikatoren [Big Data in professional football. Analysis of position data from the German Fußball-Bundesliga with new innovative Key Performance Indicators.]. Leistungssport [High Performance Sport], 1-13. Memmert, D., Raabe, D., Knyazev, A., Franzen, A., Zekas, L., Rein, R., Perl, J. & Weber, H. (2016b). Innovative Leistungsindikatoren im Profifußball auf Basis von Positionsdaten [Innovative performance indicators in professional football based on position data.]. Impulse [impulse], 2 , 14-21. Perl, J., Grunz, A. & Memmert, D. (2013). Tactics in
Zuzana Žuffová and Ludmila Zapletalová
The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of two frisbee ultimate teaching models at 8-year grammar schools relative to age. In the experimental group was used a game based model (Teaching Games for Understanding) and in the control group the traditional model based on teaching techniques. 6 groups of female students took part in experiment: experimental group 1 (n=10, age=11.6), experimental group 2 (n=12, age=13.8), experimental group 3 (n=14, age =15.8), control group 1 (n=11, age =11.7), control group 2 (n=10, age =13.8) and control group 3 (n=9, age =15.8). Efficiency of the teaching models was evaluated based of game performance and special knowledge results. Game performance was evaluated by the method of game performance assessment based on GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument) through video record. To verify level of knowledge, we used a knowledge test, which consisted of questions related to the rules and tactics knowledge of frisbee ultimate. To perform statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Game performance assessment and knowledge level indicated higher efficiency of TGfU in general, but mostly statistically insignificant. Experimental groups 1 and 2 were significantly better in the indicator that evaluates tactical aspect of game performance - decision making (p<0.05). Experimental group 3 was better in the indicator that evaluates skill execution - disc catching. The results showed that the students of the classes taught by game based model reached partially better game performance in general. Experimental groups achieved from 79.17 % to 80 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 75 % to 87.5 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test. Control groups achieved from 57.69 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 51.92 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test.
Gabriela Olosová and Ludmila Zapletalová
Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) links tactics and skills by emphasizing the appropriate timing and application within the tactical context of the game. It has been linked to the development of enhanced tactical knowledge. The purpose of the study was to determine immediate and delayed effects of TGfU on procedural and declarative knowledge of basketball and to compare it with a technical approach. Experimental group (EG) (11 fifth graders + 18 sixth graders) was taught by TGfU and a control group (CG) (16 fifth graders + 24 sixth graders) was taught by a technical approach for 8 weeks in Physical Education (PE) classes, both. A written test was constructed to evaluate pupils’ declarative and procedural knowledge of basketball. The test was applied after the intervention to determine immediate effects and 8 months after the intervention to determine retention effects of the experimental programme. Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon T-test, Man-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis of obtained data. Cohen’s d was used to calculate effect size. Generally basketball knowledge was better in EG than in CG after the intervention (p<0.05) what confirms moderate effect size. When declarative and procedural knowledge were analysed separately there was no significant difference between EG and CG. Nevertheless, moderate effect sizes indicate that the data are particularly meaningful in terms of school practice. Retention effects of both approaches were similar. Total knowledge and declarative knowledge were worse after 8 months than immediately after the intervention in both groups (p<0.01). In both groups, there was no significant difference in procedural knowledge between the test written immediately after the intervention and 8 months later. Differences of changes were not significant between the groups.
F. M. Clemente and F. M. L. Martins
://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.898852 Scoulding, A., James, N., & Taylor, J. (2004). Passing in the Soccer World Cup 2002. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport , 4 (2), 36–41. Tenga, A., Holme, I., Ronglan, L. T., & Bahr, R. (2010). Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches. Journal of Sports Sciences , 28 (3), 245–255. http://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903502766 Tenga, A., & Sigmundstad, E. (2011). Characteristics of goal
L. Yaldo and L. Shamir
prozone3 r player tracking system: A preliminary report. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport , 8 (1), 37–53. Orejan, J. (2011). Football/Soccer: History and tactics . McFarland. Jefferson, NC, USA. Prasetio, D. (2016). Predicting football match results with logistic regression. In International Conference on Advanced Informatics: Concepts, Theory And Application , 1–5. Robnik-Sikonja, M. & Kononenko, I. (1997). An adaptation of relief for attribute estimation in regression. In Machine Learning: Proceedings of the Fourteenth
Mohammed Zerf, Hadje Besultan, Norddine Attouti, Blidi Touati and Moulay Idriss Mokkedes
Soccer. Spring City, Pa: Reedswain. 42. TAVERNER, C. M., 2005. Field Hockey Techniques & Tactics . US: Human Kinetics. 43. THISSEN, G. & K. ROLLGEN, 2000. Goalkeeping Drills . UK: Reedswain Inc. 44. VINCENT, T. L. & J. S. BROWN, 2012. Evolutionary Game Theory, Natural Selection, and Darwinian Dynamics . Cambridge: University Press. 45. WEIN, H., 1973. The Science of Hockey. London: Pelham. 46. WELSH, A., 2014. The Soccer Goalkeeping Handbook . 3rd Edition. Bloomsbury: USA. 47. ZAHNER, L. E., 2012. The 12 Elements of the
S. Hüttermann, B. Noël and D. Memmert
, 293-308. Magill, R. A. (1998). Knowledge is more than we can talk about: Implicit learning in motor skill acquisition. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69 , 104-110. Mann, D. T. Y., Williams, A. M., Ward, P., & Janelle, C. M. (2007). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29 , 457-478. Martell, S. G., & Vickers J. N. (2004). Gaze characteristics of elite and near-elite athletes in ice hockey defensive tactics. Human Movement Science, 22 , 689-712. Moher, D., Liberati, A
Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Adam Kantanista, Monika Ciekot, Ida Laudańska-Krzemińska and Szymon Szwed
Health-related intensity profiles of Physical Education classes at different phases of the teaching/learning process
Study aim: To assess the intensities of three types of physical education (PE) classes corresponding to the phases of the teaching/learning process: Type 1 - acquiring and developing skills, Type 2 - selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional principles and Type 3 - evaluating and improving performance skills.
Material and methods: A cohort of 350 schoolchildren, aged 13 years, from 3 selected urban schools in Poznań participated in the study. A total of 202 PE lessons was involved using heart rate (HR) monitors, one randomly selected subject per every class. Four intensity zones were assumed (<140, 140 - 159, 160 - 179, ≥180) and exercising time spent within each zone was measured.
Results: Type 2 classes induced the most pronounced cardio-respiratory responses irrespectively of the kind of sport activities thus enhancing the cardio-respiratory fitness.
Conclusions: Type 2 activities ought to be taken into consideration when designing PE curricula in order to avoid long runs of inadequate physiological stimuli.