giant slalom's tactics in alpine skiing. In: Miyashita M., Fukunaga T. (eds.), 16th International Congress of Biomechanics. August 25-29, 1998, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 79. Giovanis, V., Kinematics of slalom course running in alpine skiing and problem of traumatology [in Polish]. Doctoral dissertation, Academy of Physical Education, Cracow 1998. Erdmann, W. S., Suchanowski, A., Aschenbrenner, P., Geometry and running of the alpine ski FIS World Cup giant slalom. Part one: geometry. In: Hong Y., Johns D. P
Włodzimierz Erdmann and Piotr Aschenbrenner
Jorge Diaz-Cidoncha Garcia, Ignacio Refoyo Román, Julio Calleja-González and Alexandre Dellal
DA, Spiering BA, Vingren JL, Hatfield DL, Anderson JM, Maresh CM. Body composition and physical performance during a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men’s soccer season. J Strength Cond Res, 2006; 20: 962-970 Tenga A, Holme I, Ronglan LT, Bahr R. Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches. J Sports Sci, 2010; 28: 245-255
Tomasz Podgórski and Maciej Pawlak
.1111/j.1540-8175.2007.00551.x. Gréhaigne J.F., Godbout P., Tactical knowledge in team sports from a constructivist and cognitive perspective. Quest , 1995, 47 (4), 490-505. Gréhaigne J.F., Godbout P., Bouthier D., The foundations of tactics and strategy in team sports. J Teach Phys Educ , 1999, 18 (2), 159-174. Reverter-Masía J., Legaz-Arrese A., Munguía-Izquierdo D., Barbany J.R., The conditioning services in elite Spanish clubs of team sports. Int J Sport Sci Coach , 2008, 3 (3), 431
Stefan Künzell, Florian Schweikart, Daniel Köhn and Olivia Schläppi-Lienhard
-722 Güldenpenning I, Steinke A, Koester D, Schack T. Athletes and novices are differently capable to recognize feint and non-feint actions. Exp Brain Res, 2013; 230: 333-343 Kais K, Raudsepp L. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball. Percept Motor Skill, 2004; 98: 439-449 Koch C, Tilp M. Beach volleyball techniques and tactics: a comparison of male and female playing characteristics. Kinesiology, 2009; 41: 52-59 Kredel R, Klostermann A, Lienhard O, Koedijker J, Michel K, Hossner
Paulo Henrique Borges, Sean Cumming, Enio R.V. Ronque, Felippe Cardoso, Ademar Avelar, Leandro Rechenchosky, Israel Teoldo da Costa and Wilson Rinaldi
study demonstrate the importance of training experience in technical and tactical development in youth soccer. Collectively, the Yo-Yo test, the Counter Movement Jump, abdominal strength, and body mass predicted 33% of the variance in defensive tactical performance of 12-17 year-old soccer players. It is possible that the strongest players were encouraged by coaches to adopt more defensive roles and tactics, as greater body size and physical strength contribute to an advantage in the defensive system, since invasion sports are characterized by intense physical
The cavalry horse, tactics and training in Western Europe – the Euro-pean provinces of the Roman Empire of the West and the Frankish Empire – du-ring the Early Middle Ages (c. 500-1000) are still subject to many myths in both popular media and academic literature. Source material is admittedly thin, yet it is specific enough to allow us to correct many of these misconceptions and outright errors.
The article initially summarises the current state of knowledge on the war horse of the period, by reference to the archaeological record. It then reviews the cavalry’s battlefield tactics, derives the skill level required to execute the manoeuvres described in the sources, and analyses where and how this training could have been provided.
The information gleaned provides an insight into the skills and expertise neces-sary to achieve the requisite sophisticated level of horsemanship. We shall argue that these imply a considerable investment in organisational infrastructure, per-sonnel and institutional memory, which has so far not received much academic attention, and has wider implications for our view of the era.
Felipe Arruda Moura, Juliana Exel Santana, Nathália Arnosti Vieira, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago and Sergio Augusto Cunha
References Barros RML, Cunha SA, Magalhães Jr. WJ, Guimarães MF. Representation and analysis of soccer players’ actions using principal components. J Hum Movement Stud, 2006; 51: 103-116 Barros RML, Misuta MS, Menezes RP, Figueroa PJ, Moura FA, Cunha SA, Anido R, Leite NJ. Analysis of the distances covered by first division Brazilian soccer players obtained with an automatic tracking method. J Sports Sci Med, 2007; 6: 233-242 Bate R. Football chance: tactics and strategy. Science and Football. E & FN SPON, 293-301; 1988 Bourbousson J
Frowin Fasold and Dennis Redlich
, every team was only allowed to participate in a maximum of two games. Design and Procedures To avoid game-effects occurring at the beginning or the end of a match such as testing the limits of the referees (e.g. permitted hardness in body contacts), fatigue effects, personal duels or crunch-time-factors (e.g. special team tactics like one-on-one defence), we only analysed the actions between the 10 th and 20 th minute of each game. Only the attacks against organized defences in 6 vs. 6 situations were considered. Furthermore, only such situations were taken
Karol Gryko, Bogusław Słupczyński and Anna Kopiczko
Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694) performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences), before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences), after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05) 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.
Grzegorz Lech, Wiesław Chwała, Tadeusz Ambroży and Stanisław Sterkowicz
The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance.
The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821).