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Miroslav Mareš

Abstract

This article analyzes terrorism against the Roma in Europe. It identifies acts of terrorism in violence that targets the largest stateless nation on the continent and categorizes this terrorism according to current research methods. Focusing on events in both Western and Eastern Europe, the article analyses and compares the most significant terrorist acts against the Roma of recent years. It concludes that anti-Romani terrorism is heterogeneous in terms of tactics, strategies, and ideological justification, yet can usually be subsumed into the broadly conceived category of far-right terrorism. The variety of attacks suggests that terrorist acts are an offshoot of the broad spectrum of anti-Romani activity, and are influenced by contemporary trends in inter-ethnic violence.

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Philippe Bou Nader

Abstract

This article addresses a key legal debate that the Baltic NATO members ought to engage in: what constitutes an “armed attack” and what interpretation should be made of this concept in order to deter recent Russian hybrid warfare strategies. These questions are considered in connection with a more general issue regarding the law of self-defence: the question of what constitutes an armed attack in international law. This article will try to present a broad definition and context of Russian hybrid warfare and how it is challenging traditional jus ad bellum paradigms. Too few policy-makers have paid detailed attention to the new Russian “lawfare” in Ukraine, using specific military and non-military tactics in order to blur the lines between “armed attack” and mere political intervention. Meanwhile, legal scholars detach their analysis from actual policy-serving considerations and tend to acquiesce to some very restrictive theories of the use force in self-defence. For some countries, like the Baltic ones, facing strategic exposure – because of both threatening neighbours and low military capacities – the jus ad bellum paradigm should not be construed as another layer of obstacle.

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Samer Al-Khateeb and Nitin Agarwal

References Abokhodair, N., Yoo, D., McDonald, D.W., 2015. Dissecting a Social Botnet: Growth, Content and Influence in Twitter, in: Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing. ACM. Allen, M., 2014. Kremlin’s “social media takeover”: Cold War tactics fuel Ukraine crisis [WWW Document]. Democr. Dig. Natl. Endow. Democr. URL http://www.demdigest.net/blog/kremlins-social-mediatakeover-cold-war-tactics-fuel-ukraine-crisis/ (accessed 5.27.15). BBC, N., 2014. Russia

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Leszek Elak

z NATO na zmiany w teorii taktyki ogólnej [The influence of integration with NATO upon the theory of general tactics], National Defence University, Warsaw 1999. Huzarski, M. Założenia ogólne działań taktycznych, obrona i natarcie oddziału [General premises of tactical operations, a troop’s attack and defence], National Defence University, Warsaw 1995. Kaczmarek W., Struktura organizacyjna związków operacyjnych adekwatna do przewidywanych zadań, [Organizational structure of higher operational units appropriate to planned tasks

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Peter A. Mattsson

Methodology of Qualitative Analysis of Military Political Systems’. Military Thought, No.3. Military-Strategic Doctrine 2011, Swedish Armed Forces, pp. 29. Ogarkov, N, V. 1995. The Deep Operation (Battle)’ in Orenstein, H, S., ed. The Evolution of Soviet Operational Art, 1927-1991, Vol. 2. London.: Frank Cass, pp. 199. Savkin, V. 1972/2002. The Basic Principles of Operational Art and Tactics. A Soviet Mew. Honolulu, HI.: University Press of the Pacific. Slipchenko, V. 2004. T roiny Novogo Pokolenia

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Leila Aouadi

, Linda. Autobiography. London: Routledge, 2001. Print. Boehmer, Elleke, “Postcolonial Literary Studies: A Neo-Orientalism?” Oriental Prospects: Western Literature and the Lure of the East, ed. C. C. Barfoot and Theo D’Haen. 239-46. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998. Print. Chow, Rey. Writing Diaspora: Tactics of Intervention in Contemporary Cultural Studies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. Print. de Lauretis, Teresa. Alice Doesn’t: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. Print

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David A. Jones

://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2014/07/chinas-trade-surplus China using ‘coercive tactics’ in maritime claims: Pentagon , “Daily Mail” (May, 2016). Web. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3589651/China-using-coercive-tactics-South-China-Sea-Pentagon.html Chinese investors have spent $300 billion on US property, study finds , “Reuters” (May, 2016). Web. http://www.cnbc.com/2016/05/16/chinese-investors-have-spent-300-billion-on-us-property-mbs-rosen-study-finds.html Chinese Real Estate Investment Plays Growing Role in U.S. Economy , “Asia Society” (May, 2016). Web

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Māris Andžāns and Viljar Veebel

://www.kaitseministeerium.ee/sites/default/files/elfinder/article_files/national_defence_strategy.pdf Estonian Ministry of Defence (2017b). Public opinion and national defence. Available: http://www.kaitseministeerium.ee/sites/default/files/elfinder/article_files/public_opinion_and_national_defence_2017_march.pdf Jervis, R. (1979). Deterrence Theory Revisited. World Politics, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Jan., 1979), pp. 289-324. Available: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2009945?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Keane, M. (2005). Dictionary of Modern Strategy and Tactics. Naval Institute Press. Knopf, J. W. (2010). The Fourth Wave in Deterrence Research. Contemporary

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Kristiina Müür, Holger Mölder, Vladimir Sazonov and Pille Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt

.10.2015 De Silva, Ricjard. 2015. ‛Ukraine's Information Security Head Discusses Russian Propaganda Tactics’ in Defence IQ, January 6. At http://www.defenceiq.com/defencetechnology/articles/ukraine-s-information-security-headdiscusses-russ/ , accessed on 03.09.2015. Earley, Pete. 2009. Seltsimees J: Vene meisterspioon külma sõja järgses Ameerikas paljastab oma rääkimata saladused. Tallinn: Tänapäev. Franke, Ulrik. 2015. War by non-military means: Understanding Russian information warfare. Stockholm: Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut

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Nikola Brzica

Abstract

In the 21st century, warfare has evolved into a challenge that many countries are ill prepared to face. In contrast to the warfare of yesterday, victory is not defined by defeating an opposing military force, but rather defeating their ability to pursue political objectives by violent, often unconventional, means. Increasingly, these unconventional means are based on asymmetries between the two opposing forces.

A plethora of definitions for the term ‘asymmetric conflict’ exist, but they can largely be summarized by a general idea that one side in a conflict, due to its own failings or its opponents’ strength, is unable to achieve its political aims through conventional (i.e. symmetric) military means. Because of this, the weaker side uses new ideas, weapons and tactics in a manner that is not expected, exploiting surprise to undermine the relative strength(s) of their opponent (Lele, 2014). The character of contemporary asymmetric threats can be analyzed through a framework of several key characteristics, which will be described in this paper. Understanding this framework, particularly in light of the horizontal transfer of technology, tactics, organization structure and procedures between emerging asymmetric threats may contribute to better understanding of such threats.