of Academic Research, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 312-314. Premium Times. (2016). Nigerian military reveals Boko Haram’s new tactics to bomb Nigerians. Premium Times, January 30. Retrieved from: http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/197681-nigerian-military-reveals-boko-harams-new-tactics-bombnigerians.html, accessed on June 1, 2016. Searcey, D. (2016). Boko Haram Turns Female Captives Into Terrorists. The New York Times, April 7. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/08/world/africa/bokoharam-suicide-bombers.html, accessed on
One of the distinctive features of Russia’s confrontation with the West over the 2014-2016 period is the intensification of Russian propaganda both in foreign countries and within the state. Lithuania, whose relations with a major neighbour were not normalized, and which openly supported Ukraine’s position, attracted the additional attention of Russian mass media in which an incitement to anti- Lithuanian moods was bolstered. In this case, it is endeavoured to generally describe how the mass media (television and newspapers) played a role in contriving a social construct and ascertain the Lithuanian quantitative characteristics which are presented in Russian mass media. Referring to the analysis, one can distinguish three prevailing negative images of Lithuania - that is, Russophobic and anti-Russian; a falsifier of history; and a failing and non-influential state. These images, being consistently and purposefully exploited in Russian information space, almost with no alternative sources, turned into undeniable truth for the majority of Russian citizens. This provides the Kremlin with vast possibilities of manipulation in constructing the tactics and strategy of geopolitical instability. On the other hand, one should not forget that such a negative picture of Lithuania serves as a way in which Russian society justifies Putin’s political system and demonstrates its superiority over the values of the Western world.
Milan Sopóci and Lubomír Matta
The article deals with the settlement of the Ground Forces in history to the present day. It confronts this information with actual trends of development of some branches of the armed forces, weapons systems, techniques, and new requirements on tactics, combat and operational use. From the armed conflicts in the last years which took place in Irak, Afghanistan, Islam state, we can conclude that the crucial tasks in battles and conflicts require the involvement of forces from other branches (Air forces, Special forces). The paper focuses on the necessity and importance of providing more and more intelligence, education, preparation and global more knowledge for regular soldiers.
In the 21st century - as in the first half of the 20th century - Lithuania has faced threats posed to its national security and statehood. Owing to its limited resources, the country is not essentially able to establish large regular forces; therefore, it is permanently developing its territorial defence forces. In the interwar period, their nucleus was formed by the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union, while in the 21st century it is by the National Defence Volunteer Forces. While modelling new concepts of territorial defence, it is inevitable to consider not only the practices of other countries and their military theories but also Lithuania’s national experience. Of course, this is the experience of 1990-2004, but in the first part of the 20th century the idea of territorial defence was also put into practice and cultivated at the theoretical level. Another aspect is that territorial defence in practice is inextricably entwined with the tactics of guerrilla warfare and their application. Lithuania’s historical experience and analysis of its territorial defence and partisan war is not only knowledge for its own sake. It may have tangible practical value since Lithuania considered, premeditated and applied these notions in practice repeatedly in the first half of the 20th century. Furthermore, the geographical location of the country and distribution of eventual sources of conflict in comparison with the interwar period have virtually not changed. In the interwar period, East Prussia, part of Germany and separated by the Polish Corridor, had been a semi-exclave up until September 1939. Similarly, it is only by sea and air that this territory is accessible at present, though now a subject of the Russian Federation as the Kaliningrad region. Due to geopolitical transformations, after World War II the ‘enemy from the East’ had moved geographically to Western Lithuania. There exists a similar situation on the south-eastern border of Lithuania, where a none-too-friendly interwar Poland changed to a Belarus governed by Alexander Lukashenko. Lithuania’s northern border with Latvia, also a NATO member at present, remains unchanged and comparatively safe; in the interwar period, only attempts were made to discuss the idea of having mutual defence although Latvia had planned to provide some support for the Lithuanian forces in the case of a Wehrmacht attack from East Prussia to the East. So it is expedient to elaborate on what attention the Lithuanian Armed Forces in the interwar period paid to the history of war, what kind of experience of the 20th century territorial defence and partisan resistance they gained, and how this may be of value to defence experts in the 21st century.
References  Vuchkov, V. (2006). Publishing House Sofia Feneia Evidences in the criminal proceedings, pp. 73-76.  Tsekov, Ts. Publishing: Science and Art (1971). Tactics of identification in the pre-trial proceedings, pp. 56-58  Bobev, K. (2006). Publishing House "St. Kliment Ohridski" Criminalistics, pp. 222-224.  Belenski, R. (2008). Ciela Publishing House Criminalistics.  Brus, B. & Horgan J. (2001). Ciela Publishing House Criminalistics.
Luděk Rak, Jan Drozd and Zdeněk Flasar
The paper focuses on the analysis of the current highly dangerous tools of destruction, used mostly by insurgents and terrorists, especially in asymmetric warfare. Vehicles usually loaded with explosives (mostly homemade explosive), driven by suicide bombers are a significant threat to troops and the civilian population, not only in high risk areas. Analysis of the available incidents of this type, and available response to an incident mentioned in this article, it becomes the basic portfolio data for the design of effective elimination or at least reduction of the destructive effect, especially on soft targets.
The current security environment is evolving towards a global complexity of unpredictable events. The risk of state and non-state actors attempting to achieve their goals through destabilization exists. In the operating environment, this implies a blurring of the boundaries between state and nonstate actors (such as insurgents, terrorists and criminals) and NATO may confront an adversary who uses traditional (conventional), irregular warfare or both (hybrid warfare). The aim of the article is to find, analyze and describe the key elements that fundamentally different irregular of traditional (conventional) and hybrid warfare.
September 2002, AON, Warszawa 2002, p.51;  M. Piekarski “Strategia i taktyka terrorystów” (“Terrorist Strategy and Tactics”) - http://www.antyterroryzm.republika.pl/Strategia_i_taktyka_terroryst%C3%B3w.pdf [17.03.2017];  https://www.state.gov/j/crt/2015/257526.htm [06.03.2017];  M. Tomczak, Ewolucja metod terrorystycznych (Evolution of Terrorist Methods) - http://studiastrategiczne.amu.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/17_tomczak.pdf [17.03.2017].
The attention still enjoyed today by Aeneas’ treatise on how to withstand a siege is not merely due to its antiquity. Many of the military principles and practical instructions it conveys are still valid. In addition to these, a closer examination opens a broader insight into the Greek city of the fourth century BC than that for which the manual was originally designed, for scholars found many interesting historical, political, social, ethnographic, and linguistic aspects scattered throughout the text. The aim of this paper is firstly, to emphasize the way in which the ideas and instructions of Aeneas Tacticus are articulated in a rigorous and clear plan and, secondly, to draw attention to some of the issues which are not specific to the military, but began to be considered relevant to the overall picture of the treatise.