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Włodzimierz Erdmann and Piotr Aschenbrenner

giant slalom's tactics in alpine skiing. In: Miyashita M., Fukunaga T. (eds.), 16th International Congress of Biomechanics. August 25-29, 1998, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 79. Giovanis, V., Kinematics of slalom course running in alpine skiing and problem of traumatology [in Polish]. Doctoral dissertation, Academy of Physical Education, Cracow 1998. Erdmann, W. S., Suchanowski, A., Aschenbrenner, P., Geometry and running of the alpine ski FIS World Cup giant slalom. Part one: geometry. In: Hong Y., Johns D. P

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Jorge Diaz-Cidoncha Garcia, Ignacio Refoyo Román, Julio Calleja-González and Alexandre Dellal

DA, Spiering BA, Vingren JL, Hatfield DL, Anderson JM, Maresh CM. Body composition and physical performance during a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men’s soccer season. J Strength Cond Res, 2006; 20: 962-970 Tenga A, Holme I, Ronglan LT, Bahr R. Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches. J Sports Sci, 2010; 28: 245-255

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Tomasz Podgórski and Maciej Pawlak

.1111/j.1540-8175.2007.00551.x. Gréhaigne J.F., Godbout P., Tactical knowledge in team sports from a constructivist and cognitive perspective. Quest , 1995, 47 (4), 490-505. Gréhaigne J.F., Godbout P., Bouthier D., The foundations of tactics and strategy in team sports. J Teach Phys Educ , 1999, 18 (2), 159-174. Reverter-Masía J., Legaz-Arrese A., Munguía-Izquierdo D., Barbany J.R., The conditioning services in elite Spanish clubs of team sports. Int J Sport Sci Coach , 2008, 3 (3), 431

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Stefan Künzell, Florian Schweikart, Daniel Köhn and Olivia Schläppi-Lienhard

-722 Güldenpenning I, Steinke A, Koester D, Schack T. Athletes and novices are differently capable to recognize feint and non-feint actions. Exp Brain Res, 2013; 230: 333-343 Kais K, Raudsepp L. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball. Percept Motor Skill, 2004; 98: 439-449 Koch C, Tilp M. Beach volleyball techniques and tactics: a comparison of male and female playing characteristics. Kinesiology, 2009; 41: 52-59 Kredel R, Klostermann A, Lienhard O, Koedijker J, Michel K, Hossner

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Paulo Henrique Borges, Sean Cumming, Enio R.V. Ronque, Felippe Cardoso, Ademar Avelar, Leandro Rechenchosky, Israel Teoldo da Costa and Wilson Rinaldi

study demonstrate the importance of training experience in technical and tactical development in youth soccer. Collectively, the Yo-Yo test, the Counter Movement Jump, abdominal strength, and body mass predicted 33% of the variance in defensive tactical performance of 12-17 year-old soccer players. It is possible that the strongest players were encouraged by coaches to adopt more defensive roles and tactics, as greater body size and physical strength contribute to an advantage in the defensive system, since invasion sports are characterized by intense physical

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Felipe Arruda Moura, Juliana Exel Santana, Nathália Arnosti Vieira, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago and Sergio Augusto Cunha

References Barros RML, Cunha SA, Magalhães Jr. WJ, Guimarães MF. Representation and analysis of soccer players’ actions using principal components. J Hum Movement Stud, 2006; 51: 103-116 Barros RML, Misuta MS, Menezes RP, Figueroa PJ, Moura FA, Cunha SA, Anido R, Leite NJ. Analysis of the distances covered by first division Brazilian soccer players obtained with an automatic tracking method. J Sports Sci Med, 2007; 6: 233-242 Bate R. Football chance: tactics and strategy. Science and Football. E & FN SPON, 293-301; 1988 Bourbousson J

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Frowin Fasold and Dennis Redlich

, every team was only allowed to participate in a maximum of two games. Design and Procedures To avoid game-effects occurring at the beginning or the end of a match such as testing the limits of the referees (e.g. permitted hardness in body contacts), fatigue effects, personal duels or crunch-time-factors (e.g. special team tactics like one-on-one defence), we only analysed the actions between the 10 th and 20 th minute of each game. Only the attacks against organized defences in 6 vs. 6 situations were considered. Furthermore, only such situations were taken

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Grzegorz Lech, Wiesław Chwała, Tadeusz Ambroży and Stanisław Sterkowicz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance.

The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821).

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Sho Tamaki, Kazuto Yoshida and Koshi Yamada

Introduction Table tennis is a sport in which highly refined skills and tactics are required. Players alternately and repeatedly hit a 2.7 g ball on a 2.75 X 1.525 m table. The ball and the court are much smaller than those employed in other racket sports. The spin, velocity and placement of the ball are controlled by players to make it difficult for opponents to successfully return it. The challenges faced by table tennis players, therefore, are to determine the optimal shot and execute it precisely, even when the ball hit by the opponent is spinning and

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Pedro Vicente-Vila and Carlos Lago-Peñas

and Dvorak, 2010 ), and psychological aspects ( Geisler and Kerr, 2007 ). From a performance analysis perspective the available research is limited and the studies have mainly analysed a variety of tactics and match situations. On the one hand, the researchers have studied tactical approaches in futsal ( Lapresa et al., 2013 ). These studies highlighted the importance of tactical systems and space as key indicators when finalising ball possession in futsal. On the other hand, futsal has been studied from tactical modelling and dynamic perspectives ( Fonseca et al