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Włodzimierz Erdmann and Piotr Aschenbrenner

giant slalom's tactics in alpine skiing. In: Miyashita M., Fukunaga T. (eds.), 16th International Congress of Biomechanics. August 25-29, 1998, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 79. Giovanis, V., Kinematics of slalom course running in alpine skiing and problem of traumatology [in Polish]. Doctoral dissertation, Academy of Physical Education, Cracow 1998. Erdmann, W. S., Suchanowski, A., Aschenbrenner, P., Geometry and running of the alpine ski FIS World Cup giant slalom. Part one: geometry. In: Hong Y., Johns D. P

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Jorge Diaz-Cidoncha Garcia, Ignacio Refoyo Román, Julio Calleja-González and Alexandre Dellal

DA, Spiering BA, Vingren JL, Hatfield DL, Anderson JM, Maresh CM. Body composition and physical performance during a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men’s soccer season. J Strength Cond Res, 2006; 20: 962-970 Tenga A, Holme I, Ronglan LT, Bahr R. Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches. J Sports Sci, 2010; 28: 245-255

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Tomasz Podgórski and Maciej Pawlak

.1111/j.1540-8175.2007.00551.x. Gréhaigne J.F., Godbout P., Tactical knowledge in team sports from a constructivist and cognitive perspective. Quest , 1995, 47 (4), 490-505. Gréhaigne J.F., Godbout P., Bouthier D., The foundations of tactics and strategy in team sports. J Teach Phys Educ , 1999, 18 (2), 159-174. Reverter-Masía J., Legaz-Arrese A., Munguía-Izquierdo D., Barbany J.R., The conditioning services in elite Spanish clubs of team sports. Int J Sport Sci Coach , 2008, 3 (3), 431

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Stefan Künzell, Florian Schweikart, Daniel Köhn and Olivia Schläppi-Lienhard

-722 Güldenpenning I, Steinke A, Koester D, Schack T. Athletes and novices are differently capable to recognize feint and non-feint actions. Exp Brain Res, 2013; 230: 333-343 Kais K, Raudsepp L. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball. Percept Motor Skill, 2004; 98: 439-449 Koch C, Tilp M. Beach volleyball techniques and tactics: a comparison of male and female playing characteristics. Kinesiology, 2009; 41: 52-59 Kredel R, Klostermann A, Lienhard O, Koedijker J, Michel K, Hossner

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Paulo Henrique Borges, Sean Cumming, Enio R.V. Ronque, Felippe Cardoso, Ademar Avelar, Leandro Rechenchosky, Israel Teoldo da Costa and Wilson Rinaldi

study demonstrate the importance of training experience in technical and tactical development in youth soccer. Collectively, the Yo-Yo test, the Counter Movement Jump, abdominal strength, and body mass predicted 33% of the variance in defensive tactical performance of 12-17 year-old soccer players. It is possible that the strongest players were encouraged by coaches to adopt more defensive roles and tactics, as greater body size and physical strength contribute to an advantage in the defensive system, since invasion sports are characterized by intense physical

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Mariusz Frączek, Piotr Hevelke, Krzysztof Komorzycki, Marcin Kotulski, Piotr Kalinowski, Barbara Górnicka and Marek Krawczyk

Esophagogastric Junction Versus Gastric Carcinoma - Implications for Surgical Tactics on the Basis of Own Experience

The exact prevalence and results of treatment of the carcinoma of esophagogastric junction (gastric cardia) are difficult to assess, and the data concerning thereof, presented in different series of patients, are frequently inconsistent. This phenomenon may result from terminological mess, resulting in different comprehension of the sole term "esophagogastric junction". That can be why the results of treatment of patients with this type of cancer are dispersed in the literature and may be as well found under "esophageal", as well as "gastric cancer" headings.

The aim of the study was to present the current view of the pathogenesis, pathology and terminological issues concerning this tumor, interesting at least for its localization at the border of two viscera and two body cavities. On the basis of our own material, we also tried to delineate the implications of such a localization to surgical tactics.

Material and methods. The patients with esophagogastric junction and more peripherally located gastric cancer were analysed in two groups, according to the date of resectional surgery performed: From 1989 to 1998 (group I), and from 1999 to 2005 (group II). In each group the patients with esophagogastric junction and peripheral gastric cancer were investigated separately. The influence of more aggressive approach to cardial cancer (additional thoracotomy approach) in group II patients on the cancer free tissue margin, number of metastatic lymph nodes excised, as well as on survival rate during a 5-years follow-up was assessed.

Results. The results show, that the additional thoracotomy, despite the increase in postoperative complications rate (mainly affecting the respiratory system- 19 vs 4.3% at laparotomy alone), did not influence the perioperative motality in our patients (approximately 5% in all subgroups). Despite the additional thoracotomy approach, facilitating the safe lower esophageal resection, the cancer free margins of the excised specimens remained unsatisfactory (the target safe margin value of 7 cm), although some improvement can be noted as compared with group I patients. The interesting finding was, that the survival rates following gastrectomy for ‘peripheral’ gastric carcinoma has been remaining practically unchanged during the 20 years of this study. Survival rates following gastric cardia resection improved in group II patients, but the differences did not reach the statistically significant level. The difference in survival rate was increasing with time in favor of group II patients, its value being triple at 5 years from surgery (18 vs 6%) as compared with group I.

Conclusions. We see the need for the development of a method allowing to select the patients with good prognosis, in whom further radicalization of resectional procedures (and subsequent treatment) would be justified by long-term disease-free survival.

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Felipe Arruda Moura, Juliana Exel Santana, Nathália Arnosti Vieira, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago and Sergio Augusto Cunha

References Barros RML, Cunha SA, Magalhães Jr. WJ, Guimarães MF. Representation and analysis of soccer players’ actions using principal components. J Hum Movement Stud, 2006; 51: 103-116 Barros RML, Misuta MS, Menezes RP, Figueroa PJ, Moura FA, Cunha SA, Anido R, Leite NJ. Analysis of the distances covered by first division Brazilian soccer players obtained with an automatic tracking method. J Sports Sci Med, 2007; 6: 233-242 Bate R. Football chance: tactics and strategy. Science and Football. E & FN SPON, 293-301; 1988 Bourbousson J

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Frowin Fasold and Dennis Redlich

, every team was only allowed to participate in a maximum of two games. Design and Procedures To avoid game-effects occurring at the beginning or the end of a match such as testing the limits of the referees (e.g. permitted hardness in body contacts), fatigue effects, personal duels or crunch-time-factors (e.g. special team tactics like one-on-one defence), we only analysed the actions between the 10 th and 20 th minute of each game. Only the attacks against organized defences in 6 vs. 6 situations were considered. Furthermore, only such situations were taken

Open access

V. Raicea, L. Moraru, Judith Kovacs, H. Suciu and R. Deac


We present the case of a 65 years old patient, initially hospitalized at Regional Pneumology Clinic with marked fatigue, severe pulmonary symptoms (suddenly developed severe resting dyspnea, orthopnea, irritating cough), loss of appetite, weight loss and dysphagia. Chest radiography raises the suspicion of giant ascending aortic aneurysm. Echocardiography confirms the presence of the aneurysm, but CT scan with contrast and angiography showed a giant pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta with severe local compression of the right lung hilum and right main bronchus and in posterior on the esophagus. Coronary angiography also shows significant compression and deformation of the left main coronary artery. Echocardiography reveals marked dilated ascending aorta in the suprabulbar portion without aortic insufficiency. Replacement of the ascending aorta was performed in extracorporeal circulation with a impregnated Dacron prosthesis. Because of technically difficult approach, the ascending aorta ( being the right anterolateral wall of the pseudoaneurysm) was incanculated via right axillary artery, the aortic crossclamp was performed initially transluminal with Foley catheter and later with classical metallic instruments, and myocardial protection was achieved initially by retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution with monitoring of lactic acid, pH and base excess simultaneous from coronary sinus and the coronary ostia during administration of cardioplegic solution. The postoperative evolution was favorable, the weaning from extracorporeal circulation was succeeded without inotropics, with a 48 hours length of stay in ICU, and the patient was discharged after 8 days postoperatively.

Open access

Karol Gryko, Bogusław Słupczyński and Anna Kopiczko


Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694) performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences), before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences), after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05) 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.