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Sarbani Chaudhury and Bhaskar Sengupta


Adaptation, a complex bilingual and bicultural process, is further problematised in a colonial scenario inflected by burgeoning nationalism and imperialist counter-oppression. Nagendranath Bose’s Karnabir (1884/85), the second extant Bengali translation of Macbeth was written after the First War of Indian Independence in 1857 and its aftermath - the formation of predominantly upper and middle class nationalist organisations that spearheaded the freedom movement. To curb anti-colonial activities in the cultural sphere, the British introduced repressive measures like the Theatre Censorship Act and the Vernacular Press Act. Bengal experienced a revival of Hinduism paradoxically augmented by the nationalist ethos and the divisive tactics of British rule that fostered communalism. This article investigates the contingencies and implications of domesticating and othering Macbeth at this juncture and the collaborative/oppositional strategies of the vernacular text vis-à-vis colonial discourse. The generic problems of negotiating tragedy in a literary tradition marked by its absence are compounded by the socio-linguistic limitations of a Sanskritised adaptation. The conflicted nature of the cultural indigenisation evidenced in Karnabir is explored with special focus on the nature of generic, linguistic and religious acculturation, issues of nomenclature and epistemology, as well as the political and ideological negotiations that the target text engages in with the source text and the intended audience.

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Christine M. Havliček

. 105-159 Bivar, Adrian David Hugh. “Cavalry Equipment and Tactics on the Euphrates Frontier.” In Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 26, 1972, pp. 271-291 Bokovenko, Nikolay A. “The Origins of Horse Riding and the Development of Ancient Central Asian Nomadic Riding Harnesses.” In Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age, edited by Jeannine Davis-Kimball. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000, pp.304-307 Brooks, E. Bruce and A. Taeko Brooks. “An Overview of Selected Classical Chinese Texts.” 2007, University of

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Lisa Meingassner

Kiwifruit , ed. Hóng-wén Huáng. Wǔhàn : ISHS Acta Horticulturae 610 (2002) : 69-71 Wáng, Zhàofēng 王兆峰. “Xiăngxī míhóutáo chănyèhuà de yōushì, lìeshì jí duìcè” 湘西猕猴桃产 业化的优势,劣势及对策 [On the advantages and disadvantages of the industrialisation of Yangtao in Xiǎngxī and tactics for its further development]. Journal of Jishou University (Social Sciences) 23 (2002): 118-121 Wáng, Zhōngyán 王中炎. “Húnán míhóutáo kēyánjiū yŭ chănyè fāzhăn” 湖南猕猴桃科研究与产 业发展 [Kiwifruit research and industrial development in Húnán]. In Míhóutáo Yánjiū Jìnzhăn (III) 猕猴桃研究进展 (III) [Advances