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Viktorija Kazakovskaja

The Development of Dialogue Competence in Children (Russian Data Corpus)

The debate regarding linguistic or communicative competence has not subsided since the publication of N. Chomsky's keynote works (Chomsky 1965; 1968). The structure of competence, its aspects, levels and components, and their content and correlation (with regard to both native and foreign language acquisition) are actively discussed in many diverse scientific fields and schools (Pinker, Jackendoff, 2005; Lehmann, 2007). The study suggests that conversational competence, as well as the linguistic-system competence, constitutes a relatively independent component of communicative competence. It also plays an important role in the development of communicative competence, as long as participation in a dialogue serves as a trigger for other types of linguistic competence.

This paper explores the following hypothesis. Although the language-system and dialogue components show traces of parallel development, their divergence may be observed at the early stages of speech ontogenesis. At this time the development of dialogue competence outstrips the development of other linguistic skills and is a catalyst for the formation of communicative competence generally. This study has two primary aims: to investigate some of the normal aspects of the acquisition of dialogue competence (based primarily on communicative failures), and to discover the conductive factors and basic prerequisites for the acquisition of dialogue skills.

The observations are based on the Russian language corpora, including longitudinal audio and video recordings and diary notes (Child Language Database of the Chair of Child Language1). The longitudinal method is the principal method employed in this investigation. Dialogue acquisition is analyzed regarding the extent to which the process relates to the functions of dialogue units initiated by questions.

Analysis of the dialogue skills of children at pre-verbal and early-verbal stages has shown that the communicative failures or breakdowns (just like the child's general mistakes) mark the development of communicative competence in a dialogue and the correlation of different components. Simultaneously developing specific strategies (those of partial understanding, participation and "the end of phrase") enable the child to participate or imitate participation in a dialogue whilst lacking cognitive and linguistic-system skills. The language behavior tactics of the mother are the leading factor in the development of the child's dialogue competence and these tactics, in many respects, are characterized by a specific use of questions2.

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David Worrall

.”Eighteenth Century Studies 36 (2003): 491-509. Print. Hayward, Major Edward P. W. “Planning Beyond Tactics: Towards a Military Application of the Philosophy of Design in the Formulation of Strategy” Diss. School of Advanced Military Studies, Fort Leavenworth, 2008. Kansas: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. Print. Holcroft, Thomas. The Deserted Daughter; A Comedy ... Covent Garden. 1795. T.a.73., Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington D.C. Print. Hopkins, William. “Diary” (1798). Folger W.a. 104 (8), Folger W.a. 104

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Lidiya Volkova

's Press. Isaacs, S. (1988). Shining through . N.Y.: Harper & Row, Publishers. Karasik, V.I. & Gillespie, D. (2014). Discourse personality types. In The XXV annual international academic conference, language and culture , 20-22 October 2014, p. 23-29. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042814055566 Korogoda, T.M. (2013). Strategies and tactics of communicative failure repair in the English conversational discourse . Thesis for the Candidate Degree in Philology, Speciality 10.02.04. – Germanic Languages. Kyiv National

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Tetiana Kyrychenko

Abstract

The paper offers a study of speech interruptions on the basis of their communicative and pragmatic peculiarities. It provides a dynamic model of interruptions, where the development of the situation of interruption is revealed thanks to the dynamic character of speech interaction. The article presents the analysis of speech acts employed in the process of interruption. It also introduces a number of tactics of the interruption in terms of the cooperative and intrusive interruption strategy.

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Marina Zheltukhina and Irina Zyubina

.A. &Buzinova, L.M. (2018). Linguopragmatic aspect of modern communication: Main political media speech strategies and tactics in the USA and the UK. In XLinguae , 11 (2), p. 639-654. DOI: 10.18355/XL.2018.11.02.51. Zvyagintsev, A.G. (2001). Sentenced by time: Russian and Soviet prosecutors: The 20 th century, 1937-1953. Moscow: Rossijskaya politicheskaya entsiklopediya. / Zvyagintsev A.G. Prigovoryonnyye vremenem: Rossiyskiye i sovetskiye prokurory: ХХ vek , 1937-1953 gg . Moskva: Rossijskaya politicheskaya entsiklopediya. / Звягинцев А.Г. Приговоренные временем

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Vilém Uhlíř

.V., Rumbaugh, D.M., 1977. Language relevant object- and color-naming tasks. In Rumbaugh, D.M. (Ed.), Language learning by a Chimpanzee: The LANA project . New York: Academic Press, pp. 193–206. [72] Gill, T.V., Rumbaugh, D.M., 1977. Training strategy and tactics. In Rumbaugh, D.M. (Ed.), Language learning by a Chimpanzee: The LANA project . New York: Academic Press, pp. 157–162. [73] Hewes, G.W., 1977. Language origin theories. In Rumbaugh, D.M. (Ed.), Language learning by a Chimpanzee: The LANA project . New York: Academic Press, pp. 3–53. [74] Essock