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Lenka Malyjurkova, Marketa Hejzlarova, Pavla Junkova Vymyslicka and Karolina Brandlova

regimes. Zoo Biology 30: 371-378. Bashaw, M. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Maple, T. L., and Bercovitch, F. B. (2007): The structure of social relationships among captive female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Journal of Comparative Psychology 121(1) : 46-53 . Bejder L., Fletcher D. (1998): A method for testing association patterns of social animals. Animal Behaviour 56: 719-725. Bercovitch F. B., Bashaw M. J., del Castillo S. M. (2006): Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa

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I. M. Nikolova

infestation by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in winter and spring forage pea. Jubilee Scientific Session “85 years Institute of Seed Science and seed “Obrazcov chiflik”-Ruse. Selection, seed production and farming practices for field crops . Reports, Item I: 204-210. Ermakov, A. 1998 Tactics for pea crop protection from pests based on the prognosis of their number. Agro XXI, 12 , 16 pp. Grigorov, S. 1960. Contribution to the biology of pea weevil Bruchus pisi L. Scientific works of HIA “D. Dimitrov “ Faculty of Agriculture VIII : 357-364. Horne, J

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Magdi Ali, Samar Hassan and Abdel-Samei Shaheen

Protection 7, 283-302. Nichols, S. A., Shaw, B. H., 1993: Review of management tactics for integrated aquatic weed management of Eurasian water milfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ), curlyleaf pondweed ( Potamogeton crispus ) and elodea ( Elodea canadensis ). Proceedings 27 Annual Meeting on Aquatic Plant Control Research, Vicksburg, 181-192. Palmer, W. A., Heard, T. A., Sheppard, A.W., 2010: Areview of Australian classical biological control of weeds programs and research activities over the past 12 years. Biological Control

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R. Byrne, J. Spink, R. Freckleton, P. Neve and S. Barth

probability of herbicide-resistant mutant plants evolving in a field is proportional to the overall size of the weed population in this field. It has repeatedly been shown that smaller populations of weeds do not require extremely high mortality rates to keep populations under control ( Mortensen et al ., 2000 ). In the IWM cropping system, numerous partially effective tactics can keep weed populations at manageable levels combined with a reduced reliance on herbicides ( Kropff et al ., 1997 ). Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of weed management programs that

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I. Nikolova and N. Georgieva

and L . luteus had similar species composition as population density on L . luteus was considerably lower. Phenological, morphological and chemical plant indicators Contemporary insect pest management commonly includes chemical and alternative tactics allowing for more sustainable crop protection and support of the natural biodiversity. Practising multiple pest management approaches will strongly reduce the risk of adaptation to one or other practices ( Russell 2013 ). The use of pest-resistant or tolerant crops where pest population is supported at

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Ľudmila Marušáková

References Aasetre J., 2004: Perception of communication in Norwegian forest management. Forest Policy and Economics, 8 , p. 81-92. Marušáková Ľ., Lehocká J., Sarvaš M., 2006: Communication Strategy in Forestry Sector in Slovakia. Národné lesnícke centrum, 47 pp. (in Slovak). Derville T., 2005: Radical activist tactics: overturning public relations conceptualisations. Public relations Review , 31(4): 527-533. Erlien B., 1999: Intern kommunikasjon

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Sergei Prahodsky, Valery Kaplich and Dmitry Voitka

and tactics, Minsk, July 5-8, 2011, 327-332. Prahodski, S.A., Yarmolovich, V.A., Kaplich, V.M. 2010. Pests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in forest plantations (in Russian). Proceedings of scientific works of the Institute of Forests in Belarus: Problems of Forest and Forestry (ed.: A.I. Kavalevich). Gomel, 491-497. Ryabinkov, V.A. 2006. Ecological problems in protecting planting material against fungi and ways of their solution (in Russian). Bulletin of the MSFU, 2 (44), 153-161. Semenkova, I.G. 2004. Forest

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Mohamed Osman and Mahmoud Mahmoud

Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management". National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Hosny M.M., Topper C.P., Moawad G.G., El-Saadany G.B. 1986. Economic damage thresholds of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton in Egypt. Crop Prot. 5: 100-104. Issa Y.H., Keddis M.E., Abdel-Sattar M.A., Ayad F.A., El-Guindy M.A. 1984a. Survey of resistance to organophosphorus insecticides in field strains of the cotton leaf-worm during 1980-1984 cotton-growing seasons. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Egypt

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Wojciech Grodzki and Wojciech Gąsienica Fronek

.C. Grégoire, A.M. Liebhold, F.M. Stephen, K.R. Day, and S.M. Salom Proceedings: Integrating cultural tactics into the management of bark beetle and reforestation pests. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE 236, 163-171. Forster B. 1998. Storm damages and bark beetle management: how to set priorities, in: W. Grodzki, M. Knížek, B. Forster B. (eds.) Methodology of Forest Insect and Disease Survey in Central Europe (Proc. IUFRO WP 7.03.10 Workshop, Ustroń-Jaszowiec (Poland) April 21-24, 1998. Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa, Warszawa, 161-168. ISBN: 978

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Jozef Vakula, Milan Zúbrik, Juraj Galko, Andrej Gubka, Andrej Kunca, Christo Nikolov and Michal Bošeľa

, 51:11–15. Christiansen, E., Bakke, A., 1997: Does drought really enhance Ips typographus epidemics? A Scandinavian perspective. In: Gregoire, J. C., Liebhold, A. M., Stephen, F. M., Day, K. R., Salom, S. M. (ed.): Proceedings: Integrating cultural tactics into the management of bark beetle and reforestation pests. USDA Forest service General Technical Report NE-236, p. 163–171. Jakuš, R., Grodzki, W., Ježík, M., Jachym, M., 2003: Definition of spatial patterns of bark beetle Ips typographus [L.] outbreak spreading in Tatra Mountains (Central Europe