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Robert Klementowski

represja. Władze wobec przestępczości gospodarczej w PRL (1956-1970) [Helplessness or repression. The authorities and financial crime in socialist Poland (1956-1970)], Warsaw. Paczkowski A. [ed.] (1996), Aparat bezpieczeństwa w latach 1944–1956. Taktyka, strategia, metody. Część I. Lata 1945-1947 [Security services in the years 1945-1947. Tactics, strategy and methods. Part 1. Years 1945-1947], Warsaw. Śliwiński A. (2004), Życie wśród łupieżców. Historia kryzysów i upadku gospodarczego Polski [Life among looters. The history of crises and the economic

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Jürg Gassmann

Abstract

The cavalry horse, tactics and training in Western Europe – the Euro-pean provinces of the Roman Empire of the West and the Frankish Empire – du-ring the Early Middle Ages (c. 500-1000) are still subject to many myths in both popular media and academic literature. Source material is admittedly thin, yet it is specific enough to allow us to correct many of these misconceptions and outright errors.

The article initially summarises the current state of knowledge on the war horse of the period, by reference to the archaeological record. It then reviews the cavalry’s battlefield tactics, derives the skill level required to execute the manoeuvres described in the sources, and analyses where and how this training could have been provided.

The information gleaned provides an insight into the skills and expertise neces-sary to achieve the requisite sophisticated level of horsemanship. We shall argue that these imply a considerable investment in organisational infrastructure, per-sonnel and institutional memory, which has so far not received much academic attention, and has wider implications for our view of the era.

Open access

Juhani Hämäläinen, Jari Sormunen, Jari Rantapelkonen and Juha-Pekka Nikkarila

Simulation Conference, Washington:. 1577-1584. Kress M. and Szechtman R. (2009). Why Defeating Insurgencies Is Hard: The Effect of Intelligence in Counterinsurgency Operations -A Best-Case Scenario, Operations Research 57(3): 578-585 Lanchester F. W., Aircraft in Warfare: the Dawn of the Fourth Arm (1916) Lappi E. (2012). Computational methods for tactical simulations, Doctor of Military Science thesis, National Defence University, Department of Tactics and Operations Art, Publications. Lincoln, Y.S. and

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Johan Sigholm

References [1] Amorosi, D., “Chinese State of Denial,” Infosecurity, Vol 8 Issue 6, Elsevier, Nov.-Dec. 2011. [2] Andress, J. and Winterfeld, S., “Cyber Warfare: Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners,” Elsevier, 2011, p. 199. [3] Applegate, S. D., “Cybermilitias and Political Hackers: Use of Irregular Forces in cyberwarfare,” IEEE Security & Privacy, Volume 9, Issue 5, Sep.-Oct. 2011. [4] Arquilla, J. and Ronfeldt D. F., “Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and

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Andrzej Grajewski

References AIPN, 0445/12, v. 1, fi le 3, Klimat polityczny w jakim został opracowany list biskupów polskich do niemieckich [Political climat during preparation of the letter from Polish to German bishops]. AIPN, 0648/162, Info no. 189/IV/65 on tactics of archbishop Kominek concerning 20th anniversary of the Church in the Recovered Territories and on the dialog with the Germans. AIPN, 0648/21, v. 2, A response of Ignacy Krasicki to the letter of cardinal Wyszyński sent to the “Polityka”, Rome, 27 IV 1966

Open access

Alicia Ohlsson, Erik Hedlund and Gerry Larsson

. L. Political skills: Explaining the effects of nonnative accent on managerial hiring and entrepreneurial investment decisions Journal of Applied Psychology 2013 98 6 1005 1017 IBM Corp, Released 2012, IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows , Version 21.0. IBM Corp., Armonk, New York. IBM Corp, Released 2012, IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. IBM Corp., Armonk, New York Jensen, J. (2007). Getting one’s way in policy debates: Influence tactics used in group decision-making settings. Public Administrative Review , 67 (2), pp. 216-227. 10.1111/j.1540

Open access

Ilmari Käihkö

to limit escalation, and infringing them was deemed to slight against the warrior ethos or honor ( Van Creveld 2009 : 132–136). This is well captured by the training school in “ungentlemanly warfare” established in Britain in 1940 by veterans of the Spanish Civil War, who sought to teach the use of guerrilla tactics against the expected German invasion ( Beckett 2001 : 20–21). A similar point was made by Charles Callwell (1996 [1906]: 23), who emphasized that while “certain rules of conduct exist which are universally accepted… irregular warfare must generally be

Open access

Jan Hanska

decade, Brodie’s vision of massive use became obsolete, but the unanswered question remains: how can we curb the speed of escalation? One of the problems was the need to ensure that employment of a tactical nuclear weapon anywhere would not automatically lead to use of strategic nuclear weapons or uncontrolled escalation. Kahn (1965b) argued that To many people escalation connotes an automatic rise in the scale of warfare from the level of an incident to the level of catastrophic nuclear exchange. But to more and more students of military strategy and tactics, it