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André A. Gazal

Abstract

John Jewel, regarded as the principal apologist and theologian for the Elizabethan Church, was also esteemed as one of England’s most important (if not the most important) authority on the subject of usury, and therefore was cited frequently by opponents of usury towards the end of the sixteenth century and throughout the seventeenth century. One of the most sustained interpretations of Jewel as a theologian on the subject of usury was by Christoph Jelinger, who observed that the late bishop of Sarum employed the same theological method in opposing usury as he did in defending the doctrines and practices of the Church of England against its Catholic opponents, that is, by appealing to the Scriptures, the Church Fathers, Church Councils, and the example of the primitive church. This article seeks to confirm the opinion of Jelinger, and in doing so show that Jewel’s opposition to usury stemmed primarily from the conviction that it was both a vice and heresy that eroded the unifying attribute of Christian society which was love.

Open access

Torrance Kirby

Abstract

Richard Hooker’s (1554-1600) adaptation of classical logos theology is exceptional and indeed quite original for its extended application of the principles of Neoplatonic apophatic theology to the concrete institutional issues of a particular time and place-the aftermath of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Indeed, his sustained effort to explore the underlying connections of urgent political and constitutional concerns with the highest discourse of hidden divine realities-the knitting together of Neoplatonic theology and Reformation politics-is perhaps the defining characteristic of Hooker’s distinction mode of thought. Hooker’s ontology adheres to a Proclean logic of procession and reversion (processio and redditus) mediated by Aquinas’s formulation of the so-called lex divinitatis whereby the originative principle of law remains simple and self-identical as an Eternal Law while it emanates manifold, derivative and dependent species of law, preeminently in the Natural Law accessible to human reason and Divine Law revealed through the Sacred Oracles of Scripture. For Hooker, therefore, ‘all thinges’-including even the Elizabethan constitution in Church and Commonwealth, are God’s offspring: ‘they are in him as effects in their highest cause, he likewise actuallie is in them, the assistance and influence of his deitie is theire life.’

Open access

Paul Dominiak

ABSTRACT

Commentators have commonly noted the metaphysical role of participation (methexis) in Richard Hooker’s Of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Polity: participation both describes how creation is suspended from God and also how believers share in Christ through grace. Yet, the role in Hooker’s thought of the attendant Platonic language of ‘between’ (metaxu) and ‘desire’ (eros) has not received sustained attention. Metaxu describes the ‘in-between’ quality of participation: the participant and the participated remain distinct but are dynamically related as the former originates from and returns to the perfection of the latter. Within this metaxological dynamic, desire (eros) acts as the physical and psychic motor driving the move between potentiality and perfect actuality, that is to say from multiplicity to divine unity: desire aims at goodness and so ultimately tends towards that which is goodness itself, namely God’s nature. For Hooker, desire becomes couched in amorous affectivity and has an erotic register. This essay explores, then, how Hooker appeals to a language of ‘between’ and ‘desire’ within his accounts of participation. First, it examines how human beings exist between the footstool and throne of God in Hooker’s legal ontology. Here, angelic desire acts as a hierarchical pattern of and spur to erotic participation in the divine nature. Second, this essay examines how theurgy transforms desire in Hooker’s account of liturgical participation as a redemptive commerce between heaven and earth. Here, angels still act as invisible, hierarchical intermediaries within earthly worship, but soon give way to immediate grace through participation in Christ within the sacraments.

Open access

Ubaldo Comite

-competitiva , Vita e Pensiero, Milano, 2004. Payne D. M., Raiborn C. A., Sustainable Development: The ethics support the economics , Journal of Business Ethics, 32, 2001. Ponzanelli G., Impresa e ambiente , Circolo giuridico dell'università, Siena, 1963. Rusconi G., Il bilancio sociale. Economia, etica e responsabilità d'impresa, Ediesse, Roma, 2006. Terzani S., Responsabilità sociale dell'azienda , Rivista Italiana di Ragioneria ed Economia Aziendale n°7-8, Roma, 1984

Open access

Archbishop Thabo Makgoba

Abstract

This paper considers hope and environment from a majority world perspective. It begins by surveying moves within the Anglican Church to become more environmentally aware, and to integrate environmental concerns into theology and practice. This process began at the Lambeth Conference in 1968 and eventually led to the inclusion of an environmental strand within the Anglican Communion’s ‘Five Marks of Mission’. The fifth Mark is ‘To strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and sustain and renew the life of the earth.’ In the 2008 Lambeth Conference a whole section was devoted to the environment. There follow accounts of environmental work in the Province of Southern Africa. In Niassa Diocese, in northern Mozambique, the mission department has been using Umoja (from the Swahili word for having a common mind) in congregational and community development. It demonstrates holistic mission by deepening faith, building community, and helping with practical challenges. Now the bigger question facing Southern Africa and the majority world is climate change. In South Africa apartheid used to dominate everything and this led to unity in the Church, but after apartheid the country is not faced by one overarching problem, but many. The theology of Charles Mathewes is explored in an attempt to find an adequate Christian response and bring hope to this new context. This then leads on to action in both small practical ways, and in bringing about more fundamental change. Finally, we are reminded that we should not always speak about problems, but also to present a positive vision.

Open access

Andy Atkins

.html 19. Friends of the Earth (2012, April 16). Wildflowers for bees in London. YouTube video retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkbgj9MbVJQ 20. Friends of the Earth (2013, April 29). Europe votes for pesticides ban. Retrieved June 18, 2013., from http://www.foe.co.uk/news/europe_pesticides_ban_39938.html 21. United Nations (2012). Rio+20, United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. Retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.uncsd2012.org/ 22. Tearfund (2012

Open access

Martin J. Hodson

change, and sustainability: a challenge to scientists, policy-makers, and Christians. JRI Briefing Paper 14 (4th edition). Retrieved December 9, 2012, from http://www.jri.org.uk/brief/BriefingNo14_4thEdition_July.pdf 54. Rigg, K. (2012, December 7). Finding hope in the final hours of the Doha climate conference. Huffington Post Green. Retrieved December 9, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kelly-rigg/finding-hope-in-the-final_b_2259034.html