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Open access

Nina Andersz and Dariusz Boguszewski


The aim of the study was the assessment of the dependence between the type and level of motivation, and the assessment of rehabilitation efficiency and sports-activity after the injury. 207 male and female competitors training basketball and handball participated in the study. There were 111 women (46 basketball and 65 handball players) and 96 men (48 basketball and 51 handball players) studied. The investigative tools were: the Carver and White′s questionnaire (measuring the activity level of the BAS and BIS system in three measurements), the author′s survey taking into account the information concerning training-methods, number, types and circumstance of experienced injuries, methods of their treatment and the visual analogue pain intensity scale (VAS). Those surveyed evaluated also the efficiency of physiotherapeutic treatments in the 1-10 scale. The statistical tools were as follow: the arithmetical mean together with the standard deviation and the simple correlation. At training men there was some negative dependence between the time of break in trainings after sustained injury and one of the measurements according to the questionnaire: BAS Drive (p<0.05). In the above-group there also appeared some positive dependence (p<0.05) between the declared level of felt pain and the results on the BAS Fun Seeking scale. The studied women attained noticeably higher (p<0.05) results of the BAS Reward Responsiveness and BIS scale than men. At women there also appeared some positive dependence between the time of break in trainings after sustained injury and the intensification of the BIS activation (p<0.05). 1. Some strong relationship between the levels of different forms of motivation in chosen aspects of rehabilitation of sportsmen was shown. 2. At men, high level of goal oriented motivation was connected with the negative assessment of rehabilitation efficiency, what could evidence the frustration resulting from inability to train. Strong goal orientation may therefore shorten the period of convalescence.

Open access

B. Lin, S. F. Wong and A. Baca


The surface EMG signal in the action of dynamic contraction has more movement interference compared to sustained static contractions. In addition, the recruitment and de-recruitment of motor units causes a faster change in the surface EMG signal’s proprieties. Therefore, more complex techniques are required to extract information from the surface EMG signal. The standardized protocol for surface myoelectric signal measurement in table tennis was a case study in this research area. The Autoregressive method based on the Akaike Information Criterion, the Wavelet method based on intensity analysis, and the Hilbert-Huang transform method were used to estimate the muscle fatigue and non-fatigue condition. The result was that the Hilbert-Huang transform method was shown to be more reliable and accurate for studying the biceps brachii muscle in both conditions. However, the Wavelet method based on intensity analysis is more reliable and accurate for the pectoralis major muscle, deltoideus anterior muscle and deltoideus medialis muscle. The results suggest that different time-frequency analysis techniques influence different muscle analyses based on surface EMG signals in fatigue and non-fatigue conditions

Open access

Stanislav Kraček, Petra Pačesová, Pavel Šmela and Miloš Štefanovský

Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft fur Orthopadisch- Traumatologische Sportmedizin. 19(4), p. 187-190. 13. SÁNCHEZ- LÓPEZ, J., T. FERNÁNDEZ, J. SILVA-PEREYRA & J. A. MARTÍNEZMESA, 2013. Differences between Judo, Taekwondo and Kung-fu Athletes in Sustained Attention and Impulse Control. Psychology, 4(7), pp. 607-612. 14. STERNBERG, R. J., K. STERNBERG & J. MIO, 2012. Cognitive Psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-1133313915. 15. ŠTEFANOVSKÝ, M., 2015. Fyziologické, motorické a somatické charakteristiky džudistov z hľadiska

Open access

Audrius Šimkus, Rimantas Mikalauskas, Aleksandras Alekrinskis and Daiva Bulotienė

ICTs: the Case of Sidelines. Chapter XIII. Challenges for Volunteer Management. Edited by Matthew Liao-Troth. Idea Publishing. 25. Meliski, J., & Holzer, M. (2007). Assessing Digital Government at the Local Level Worldwide: an Analysis of Municipal Websites Throughout the World, in Norris, D. (Ed.). Current Issues and Trends in E-Government Research , Cyber Tech, Hershey, PA. 26. Moynes, A. (1966). Volunteers in Development. Overseas Development Institute, London. 27. Penner, L., A. (2002). Dispositional and Organizational Influences on Sustained

Open access

L. Yaldo and L. Shamir

sportspecial emphasis: Football (dagstuhl seminar 11271). Dagstuhl Reports , 1 (7). Markovits, A. S., & Green, A. I. (2017). FIFA, the video game: a major vehicle for soccer’s popularization in the United States. Sport in Society, 20 (5-6), 716-734. Muller, J. C., Lammert, J., & Hovemann, G. (2012). The financial fair play regulations of uefa: An adequate concept to ensure the long-term viability and sustainability of european club football? International Journal of Sport Finance , 7 (2), 117. O’Donoghue, P. & Robinson, G. (2009). Validity of the

Open access

Faruk Yamaner, Hayrettin Gümüşdağ, Alparslan Kartal, M. Gümüş, A. Güllü and O. Imamoğlu

The prevalence of injuries in professional Turkish soccer players

Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season.

Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in 2005-2006 season were requested to submit questionnaire reports on all injuries they experienced.

Results: About 60% of all injuries pertained to lower extremities, another 25% to upper extremities, the most frequent being skin abrasions (about 24%). The percentage of players who sustained injuries was lowest among mid-field players (about 47%) compared with other categories (nearly 70%) but the average number of injuries per player was highest among them (8.1 vs. about 4.5). The risk of sustaining injury when playing a match amounted to 9.8% for mid-field players; that was significantly (p<0.01) lower (11.7 - 13.0%) than for other categories of players.

Conclusions: Football injuries are the major factor affecting players' performance. Thus, appropriate strategies, aimed at reducing injuries, ought to be implemented.

Open access

Andrew Scott Perrotta and Darren E. R. Warburton


Study aim: Recent evidence has revealed a reduction in the strength of correlation between ratings of perceived exertion and a heart rate (HR) derived training load in elite field hockey players during competition. These competitive periods involve sustained levels of cardiovascular performance coupled with considerable time performing above the anaerobic threshold. As such, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the magnitude of correlation between ratings of perceived exertion and time spent above threshold and two HR derived training loads.

Material and methods: Seventeen (n = 17) international caliber female field hockey players competing as a national team were monitored over four matches during a seven-day competition period within the 2016 Olympic Cycle. Cardiovascular indices of exercise intensity were derived from HR dynamics and were quantified through estimating time spent above anaerobic threshold (LT2), the Edwards training load model (TLED) and the Polar Training Load (TLPOL). Sessional ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) were recorded after each match.

Results: 64 samples were recorded for analysis. HR derived (TLED& TL POL) and sRPE training loads remained comparable between matches. A large correlation (p = 0.01) was observed between sRPE and each heart rate derived training load (TLED& TLPOL). An unremarkable relationship (p = 0.06) was revealed between time spent above LT2 and sRPE.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate HR derived training loads (TLPOL& TLED) exhibit a stronger correlation with sRPE than time spent above LT2 in elite field hockey players during competition.

Open access

Gurutze del Ama Espinosa, Tapani Pöyhönen, José Francisco Aramendi, Juan Carlos Samaniego, José Ignacio Emparanza Knörr and Heikki Kyröläinen


Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

Material and methods: three football teams were recruited for this randomised controlled trial. They played in the first and second divisions in Spain. Players were randomised within clubs either to the intervention (eccentric exercises, n = 22) or control (control exercises, n = 21) groups, and randomisation was stratified according to previous history of thigh strains. The eccentric programme was divided into 3 phases, and each phase was composed of 7 weeks. Compliance level and all injuries were recorded throughout the season as well as training and game exposure times. Muscle strength and power of the lower extremities and flexibility of the hamstrings and lower back were measured before and after the intervention.

Results: the risk for sustaining a hamstring strain (RSHS) was reduced by 81%. However, differences were not significant due to the low number of subjects (relative risk 0.19; 95% coefficient interval 0.02–1.50). The strength of the hamstrings decreased in both groups (p < 0.05), whereas sprint time was improved only in the intervention group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: the present findings suggest that a simple program of eccentric exercise could reduce RSHS.

Open access

Dagmara Iwańska, Anna Madej and Czesław Urbanik


Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

Material and methods: 300 students aged 12, 14 and 16 from six Warsaw’s schools participated in the study. Students were divided into 12 groups according to three criterions: hearing impairment level, gender and age. The physical fitness was measured with laboratory methods. There was „inclined plane” measurement set used to estimate the endurance level. From the biomechanical point of view the measure of endurance is change of power versus time and total work.

Results: The study result’s proved significant differences only between boy’s group. Deaf and hearing girls presented similar level of their endurance parameters. The significant differences in results of deaf and well-hearing students were observed in the groups of 14 years old boys. Deaf male students presented 23% lower (p < 0.01) values of maximal power in comparison to their hearing peers. Yet, they were more capable of sustaining the power developed for a longer time, which is proved by significantly higher (33%; p < 0.001) regression coefficient b. Since maximal power level was lower, the executed work was also significantly lower comparing to well-hearing students’ results.

Conclusion: Research proved that deaf students do not vary from their well-hearing peers with regard to the energetic potential. Differences described in the literature and recorded in our research are probably the result of environmental (social) factors and different models of gaining movement habits.

Open access

Anna Leś and Marta Gaworska

Settlements (Habitat). Jancey J, A. Clarke, P. Howat, A. Lee, T. Shilton, J. Fisher (2008) A physical activity program to mobilize older people: A practical and sustainable approach. The Gerontologist , 48:251-257. Last J.M. (2000). Dictionary of Epidemiology (4 th ed.) Oxford University Press, New York. Matuso M., J. Nagasawa, A. Yoshino, K. Hiramatsu, K. Kurashiki (2003) Effects of activity participation of the elderly on quality of life. Yonago Acta Medica 46