. Women, U. N. (2014). The World Survey on the role of women in development 2014: Gender equality and sustainable development. A report signed by the Secretary General and Executive Director, UN Women. World Bank. http://www.data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.NENR, accessed Nov. 2015. World Health Organization. (2015). Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990-2015. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division. World Health Organization.(2015). H4+ Partnership. The H4+ Partnership
Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi and Peter McDonald
The Islamic Republic of Iran has experienced a remarkable demographic transition over the last three decades. As a result of social, demographic and economic changes, Iran’s fertility declined from 7.0 births per woman in 1980 to around 1.8 to 2.0 in 2011 based on our estimation (McDonald et al. 2015). The initial rise and rapid fall of fertility accompanied by a decline of child mortality led to a post-revolutionary youth bulge in the age distribution that will lead to rapid ageing in the longer-term future. Others have argued that Iran’s fertility has fallen to much lower levels - as low as 1.5 births per woman (eg. Erfani 2013). Such low estimates led to the Government of Iran adopting a pronatalist policy with the aim of increasing fertility, although the components of the policy are still under discussion. Different views have been expressed on the role of family planning and other programs in meeting population policy goals in Iran in the future with some advocating the discontinuation of government assistance to family planning. This paper aims to review the trends and levels of fertility, marriage, and family planning and their implications for policy. Using various datasets and detailed parity-based measures of fertility, the dynamics of fertility regulation practiced by Iranian couples are investigated. Our findings suggest that contraceptive use stabilized before 2000 and postponement of the first child and wide birth intervals are the main contributors to the level of fertility. Therefore, instead of discontinuation of the family planning program, policy to sustain fertility at its present level or a little higher needs to focus upon improving the economic circumstances of young people so that they are able to make less constrained choices about family formation than is the case at present.
Bibliography DoH (2013). G8 – Dementia Summit Declaration . RDD/10495. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/g8-dementia-summit-agreements/g8-dementia-summit-declaration . UN (2002). “Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing”. In: New York: United Nations . UN (2015a). Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction . http://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf . UN (2015b). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development . A/RES/70/1. http
, 34(3), 261-263. Keating, N. (2011). Critical reflections on families of older adults. Advances in Gerontology, 24(2): 343-349 UN. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A/RES/70/1. http:/www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E . WHO. (2016). Global Strategy and Action Plan on Ageing and Health. A69/17. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA69/A69_17-en.pdf .
Jamie P. Halsall and Ian G. Cook
Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 24(1): 1-4. Hajjar, R. R., Atli, T., Al-Mandhari, Z., Oudrhiri, M., Balducci, L.&Silbermann, M. (2013).Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care. Annals of Oncology , 23(7): 11-24. Halsall, J. P., Cook, I. G. and Wankhade, P. (2015). The British big society effect: the challenges of the third sector. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 7(4): 309-21. Halsall, J. P., Oberoi, R., Cook, I.G. and Wankhade, P. (2013). Understanding community governance: a
://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/pau/age/Ministerial_Conference_Vienna/Documents/Vienna_Research_Forum_Statement__FINAL.pdf Accessed 9 September 2015. United Nations (1982). Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing. New York: United Nations. United Nations (1997). Sustaining social security. New York: United Nations. United Nations (2002). Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing. In: Report of the Second World Assembly on Ageing, 8-12 April 2002, Madrid, Spain, pp. 1-42. New York: United Nations. United Nations, General Assembly (2006). Follow-up to the International Year of Older Persons: Second World Assembly on
Trends for Youth 2012. Geneva: ILO. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_180976.pdf Accessed 20 May 2013. ILO (2015) Synthesis review of ILO experience in youth and women’s employment in the MENA region: Summary version ILO Regional Office for Arab States - Beirut: ILO. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-Beirut/documents/publication/wcms_432593.pdf Accessed 10 March 2017 Iqbal, F. (2005) Sustaining Gains in Poverty Reduction and Human Development in the Middle East and
Epidemiologic data for demographic and policy transitions
Paul Kowal and Julie E. Byles
.nationalplanningcycles.org/sites/default/files/country_docs/Ghana/ghana.pdf Republic of Ghana Ministry of Health . (2014) Health sector medium-term development plan (2014-2017). Accra, Ghana Health Service, 01 October. www.nationalplanningcycles.org/sites/default/files/planning_cycle_repository/ghana/hsmtdp_2014-2017_final_draft_9_oct.pdf Sanderson, W. C., & Scherbov S. (2010) ’Remeasuring aging’, Science, vol. 329 no. 5997, pp. 1287-1288. Sachs, J. (2015) The age of sustainable development. New York: Columbia University Press. Schumacher, E.F. (1973) Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if
Rachel Sullivan Robinson
Gambia. 1992. National Population Policy for Socio-Economic Development. Banjul: National Population Commission. Republic of Uganda. 1995. The National Population Policy for Sustainable Development. Kampala: Population Secretariat. Richey, Lisa Ann. 2008. Population Politics and Development: From the Policies to the Clinics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Robinson, Rachel Sullivan. 2011. “From Population to HIV: The Organizational and Structural Determinants of HIV Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Journal of the